Abbreviated magnetic resonance imaging in breast cancer: A systematic review of literature

Open AccessPublished:December 17, 2020DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejro.2020.100307

      Abstract

      Background

      : magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been increasingly used to study breast cancer for screening high-risk cases, pre-operative staging, and problem-solving because of its high sensitivity. However, its cost-effectiveness is still debated. Thus, the concept of abbreviated MRI (ABB-MRI) protocols was proposed as a possible solution for reducing MRI costs

      Purpose

      : to investigate the role of the abbreviated MRI protocols in detecting and staging breast cancer

      Methods

      : a systematic search of the literature was carried out in the bibliographic databases: Scopus, PubMed, Medline, and Science Direct.

      Results

      : forty-one articles were included, which described results of the assessment of fifty-three abbreviated protocols for screening, staging, recurrence assessing, and problem-solving or clarification.

      Conclusions

      : the use of ABB-MRI protocols allows reducing the acquisition and reading times, maintaining a high concordance with the final interpretation, in comparison to a complete protocol. However, larger prospective and multicentre trials are necessary to validate the performance in specific clinical environments

      Keywords

      1. Introduction

      Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the world and the leading cause of death by cancer among women around the world [
      • Wild C.P.
      • Widerpass E.
      • Stewart B.W.
      World Cancer Report 2014.
      ]. In 2018, the World Health Organisation (WHO) reported more than 2 million new cases and 626,679 deaths by this disease [
      Breast Fact Sheet.
      ]. Early detection continues to be the best strategy to improve the prognosis of breast cancer, and mammography remains the standard screening method for detection in women over 40 years, with a sensitivity of 70% and a specificity of 92% in the general population [
      • Morrow M.
      • Waters J.
      • Morris E.
      MRI for breast cancer screening, diagnosis, and treatment.
      ]. Different studies have shown that screening with mammography has an effect on mortality by breast cancer [
      • Gøtzsche P.C.
      • Nielsen M.
      Screening for breast cancer with mammography.
      ].
      Despite this, mammography has shown poor performance in the detection of cancer in patients with dense breasts [
      • Ciatto S.
      • Visioli C.
      • Paci E.
      • Zappa M.
      Breast density as a determinant of interval cancer at mammographic screening.
      ,
      • Morrow M.
      • Waters J.
      • Morris E.
      MRI for breast cancer screening, diagnosis, and treatment.
      ]. It is also not indicated in young patients because of the possible effect of radiation exposure. To counteract this problem, other imaging modalities have been proposed, such as tomosynthesis, a variation of mammography that generates three-dimensional images but whose performance is not significantly greater; breast ultrasound, which is useful as a complementary study, but with a low-positive predictive value [
      • Berg W.A.
      • Blume J.D.
      • Cormack J.B.
      • Mendelson E.B.
      • Lehrer D.
      • B“ohm-Vélez M.
      • Pisano E.D.
      • Jong R.A.
      • Evans W.P.
      • Morton M.J.
      • Mahoney M.C.
      • Larsen L.H.
      • Barr R.G.
      • Farria D.M.
      • Marques H.S.
      • Boparai K.
      Combined screening with ultrasound and mammography vs mammography alone in women at elevated risk of breast cancer.
      ], and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and specifically the Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI, which is currently considered the most sensitive method for detecting breast cancer without the use of ionizing radiation and is proposed as an effective screening alternative in high-risk population [
      • Greenwood H.I.
      • Dodelzon K.
      • Katzen J.T.
      Impact of advancing technology on diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer.
      ].
      The usefulness of breast magnetic resonance imaging not only includes an initial diagnosis and detection of breast cancer, but it is also recommended for preoperative staging, problem-solving, follow-up of treatment response, among others. A great benefit of MRI is its high detection sensitivity of breast cancer and its usefulness for finding subtle tumors in mammograms, ultrasounds, and physical examination [
      • Demartini W.
      • Lehman C.
      A review of current evidence-based clinical applications for breast magnetic resonance imaging.
      ]. Particularly, breast cancer screening with MRI alone or combined with ultrasound or mammography has shown variable cost-effectiveness regarding the objective population. Studies have shown that MRI is cost-effective for high-risk patients [
      • Taneja C.
      • Edelsberg J.
      • Weycker D.
      • Guo A.
      • Oster G.
      • Weinreb J.
      Cost effectiveness of breast cancer screening with contrast-enhanced MRI in high-risk women.
      ,
      • Saadatmand S.
      • Tilanus-Linthorst M.M.A.
      • Rutgers E.J.T.
      • Hoogerbrugge N.
      • Oosterwijk J.C.
      • Tollenaar R.A.E.M.
      • Hooning M.
      • Loo C.E.
      • Obdeijn I.-M.
      • Heijnsdijk E.A.M.
      • de Koning H.J.
      Cost-effectiveness of screening women with familial risk for breast cancer with magnetic resonance imaging.
      ]. In fact, in the last years has been a generalised agreement among the main European and American radiology associations (the European Society of Breast Cancer Specialists - EUSOMA, European Society of Breast Imaging-EUSOBI, Society of Breast Imaging-SBI, American College of Radiology-ACR, and American Cancer Society -ACS) regarding to recommendations for annual screening with MRI and mammography for women with a risk of >20% [
      • Saslow D.
      • Boetes C.
      • Burke W.
      • Harms S.
      • Leach M.O.
      • Lehman C.D.
      • Morris E.
      • Pisano E.
      • Schnall M.
      • Sener S.
      • Smith R.A.
      • Warner E.
      • Yaffe M.
      • Andrews K.S.
      • Russell C.A.
      • American Cancer Society Breast Cancer Advisory Group
      American cancer society guidelines for breast screening with MRI as an adjunct to mammography.
      ,
      • Lee C.H.
      • Dershaw D.D.
      • Kopans D.
      • Evans P.
      • Monsees B.
      • Monticciolo D.
      • Brenner R.J.
      • Bassett L.
      • Berg W.
      • Feig S.
      • Hendrick E.
      • Mendelson E.
      • D’Orsi C.
      • Sickles E.
      • Burhenne L.W.
      Breast cancer screening with imaging: recommendations from the society of breast imaging and the ACR on the use of mammography, breast MRI, breast ultrasound, and other technologies for the detection of clinically occult breast cancer.
      ,
      • Mann R.M.
      • Balleyguier C.
      • Baltzer P.A.
      • Bick U.
      • Colin C.
      • Cornford E.
      • Evans A.
      • Fallenberg E.
      • Forrai G.
      • Fuchsj”ager M.H.
      • et al.
      Breast mri: eusobi recommendations for women's information.
      ,
      • Sardanelli F.
      • Boetes C.
      • Borisch B.
      • Decker T.
      • Federico M.
      • Gilbert F.J.
      • Helbich T.
      • Heywang-K“obrunner S.H.
      • Kaiser W.A.
      • Kerin M.J.
      • et al.
      Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast: recommendations from the eusoma working group.
      ,
      • Smith R.A.
      • Andrews K.S.
      • Brooks D.
      • Fedewa S.A.
      • Manassaram-Baptiste D.
      • Saslow D.
      • Wender R.C.
      Cancer screening in the united states, 2019: a review of current american cancer society guidelines and current issues in cancer screening.
      ,
      • AB D.L.
      • et al.
      Screening in patients with increased risk of breast cancer (part 1): pros and cons of mri screening.
      ], which includes women with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, women with relatives of first degree of consanguinity with a BRCA mutation, clinical history of thoracic radiation, and Li-Fraumeni, Cowden or Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome [
      • Taneja C.
      • Edelsberg J.
      • Weycker D.
      • Guo A.
      • Oster G.
      • Weinreb J.
      Cost effectiveness of breast cancer screening with contrast-enhanced MRI in high-risk women.
      ]. However, its use as a screening method in the general population or with an intermediate or lower risk of life is hindered due to the cost associated with the study acquisition and the radiology time interpretation. Thus, although recent studies have estimated that screening with MRI alone in women whose only risk factor is dense breasts is economically feasible [
      • Kaiser C.G.
      • Dietzel M.
      • Vag T.
      • Froelich M.F.
      Cost-effectiveness of MR-mammography vs. conventional mammography in screening patients at intermediate risk of breast cancer - A model-based economic evaluation.
      ,
      • Froelich M.F.
      • Kaiser C.G.
      Cost-effectiveness of MR-mammography as a solitary imaging technique in women with dense breasts: an economic evaluation of the prospective TK-Study.
      ], none of the current guidelines recommend MRI as a screening imaging technique in those cases.
      In 2014, Cristiane Kuhl [
      • Kuhl C.K.
      • Schrading S.
      • Strobel K.
      • Schild H.H.
      • Hilgers R.-D.
      • Bieling H.B.
      Abbreviated breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): first postcontrast subtracted images and maximum-intensity projection-a novel approach to breast cancer screening with MRI.
      ] introduced the concept of an abbreviated protocol for breast MRI (ABB-MRI) for breast cancer screening, which required the acquisition of only two sequences, i.e., T1-weighted, acquired before and immediately after the application of gadolinium; from them, two derived images, i.e., the First contrast-enhanced Acquisition SubTracted (FAST) and maximum-intensity projection (MIP) were used for interpretation. This study, which included women with increased risk of developing the disease, allowed establishing the absence of cancer with a negative predictive value of 99.8% and a diagnostic accuracy equivalent to that obtained by a complete protocol but reducing the acquisition and interpretation times to 3 minutes and fewer than 30 seconds, respectively. From this study, the research into the use of abbreviated protocols for the detection, characterization, and staging of lesions in breast magnetic resonance has become a relevant topic due to the feasibility of substantially reducing the image acquisition and reading times.
      Other review articles have described some of the abbreviated protocols published in the literature [
      • Chhor C.M.
      • Mercado C.L.
      Abbreviated MRI protocols: wave of the future for breast cancer screening.
      ,
      • Leithner D.
      • Moy L.
      • Morris E.A.
      • Marino M.A.
      • Helbich T.H.
      • Pinker K.
      Abbreviated MRI of the breast: does it provide value?.
      ,
      • Sheth D.
      • Abe H.
      Abbreviated MRI and accelerated MRI for screening and diagnosis of breast cancer.
      ,
      • Deike-Hofmann K.
      • Koenig F.
      • Paech D.
      • Dreher C.
      • Delorme S.
      • Schlemmer H.-P.
      • Bickelhaupt S.
      Abbreviated MRI protocols in breast cancer diagnostics.
      ,
      • Greenwood H.I.
      Abbreviated protocol breast MRI: the past, present, and future.
      ,
      • Ko E.S.
      • Morris E.A.
      Abbreviated magnetic resonance imaging for breast cancer screening: concept, early results, and considerations.
      ,
      • Kuhl C.K.
      Abbreviated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for breast cancer screening: rationale, concept, and transfer to clinical practice.
      ,
      • Milon A.
      • Vande Perre S.
      • Poujol J.
      • Trop I.
      • Kermarrec E.
      • Bekhouche A.
      • Thomassin-Naggara I.
      Abbreviated breast MRI combining FAST protocol and high temporal resolution (HTR) dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) sequence.
      ,
      • Mann R.M.
      • van Zelst J.C.M.
      • Vreemann S.
      • Mus R.D.M.
      Is ultrafast or abbreviated breast MRI ready for prime time?.
      ,
      • Mootz A.R.
      • Madhuranthakam A.J.
      • Dogan B.
      Changing paradigms in breast cancer screening: abbreviated breast MRI.
      ,
      • Gao Y.
      • Heller S.L.
      Abbreviated and ultrafast breast MRI in clinical practice.
      ]; however, none of them performed a comprehensive systematic review. Recently, Baxter et al [
      • Baxter G.C.
      • Selamoglu A.
      • Mackay J.W.
      • Bond S.
      • Gray E.
      • Gilbert F.J.
      A meta-analysis comparing the diagnostic performance of abbreviated mri (abb-mri) and a full diagnostic protocol (fdp-mri) in breast cancer.
      ] presented a systematic review and meta-analysis of published ABB-MRI studies but focused on screening only cohorts and enriched cohorts separately. Additionally, the search was carried out in August 2019, which implies the exclusion of recent works. Similarly, Geach et al. [
      • Geach R.
      • Jones L.I.
      • Harding S.A.
      • Marshall A.
      • Taylor-Phillips S.
      • McKeown-Keegan S.
      • Dunn J.A.
      • Kuhl C.
      • Vinnicombe S.
      • O’Flynn E.
      • Wookey J.
      • Rose J.
      • Foy C.
      • Taylor V.
      • Valencia A.
      • Gifford J.
      • Gray R.
      • Jones T.W.
      • Litton K.
      • Lloyd S.
      • Kutt E.
      • Pocklington A.
      • Mahatma A.
      • Massey H.
      • Clark G.
      • McLachlan C.
      • Beckett G.
      • Alison C.
      • Barta M.
      • Betancourt C.
      • Bramwell J.
      • Bright N.
      • Burt H.
      • Cann L.
      • Ceney J.
      • Cornford E.
      • Dalgliesh D.
      • Doyle S.
      • Fearn S.
      • Godden D.
      • Goldthorpe Z.
      • Hobson L.
      • Hynam P.
      • Jackson E.
      • Jenkin M.
      • Kingsnorth B.
      • Klimczak K.
      • Moody A.
      • Perrin S.
      • Peters A.
      • Preston E.
      • Ratsey A.
      • Sidebottom R.
      • Steel J.
      • Stephenson L.
      • Taylor M.
      • Toth E.
      • Vincent F.
      • Watkin S.
      • Widdison S.
      • Williams J.
      • Wilmot K.
      • Elangovan P.
      • Halling-Brown M.
      • Ghiasvand H.
      • Hulme C.
      • Singamaneni S.
      • Friedrich Z.
      • Robson J.
      • Mankelow A.
      The potential utility of abbreviated breast MRI (FAST MRI) as a tool for breast cancer screening: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
      ] presented a systematic review and meta-analysis of ABB-MRI for breast cancer screening that included the FAST sequence; the search was performed in November 2019.
      This document presents the results of a comprehensive systematic review of literature on abbreviated protocols for breast cancer study, including screening, follow-up, staging, among other applications. We analyze the configuration of the proposed protocols, its performance, and the effect produced by the acquisition and interpretation times.

      2. Materials and methods

      2.1 Sources consulted and search strategy

      A search of published documents was carried out using the following equation: (MRI AND “breast cancer” AND (abbreviated OR accelerated OR fast)), in the databases PubMed (134), Medline (124), Science Direct (27) and Scopus (253). The search was restricted to metadata title, abstract, and keywords. It was also limited to the period between January 1, 2013, and July 31, 2020.

      2.2 Eligibility criteria

      For this review, full-text availability articles published in a peer-reviewed journal (abstracts and conference proceedings were excluded) and written in English were considered. Studies that include a reduced number of MRI sequences for the detection, staging, and/or follow-up of breast cancer were evaluated. A comparison concerning a referenced standard (complete protocol interpretation, biopsy, or imaging follow-up) was also required.

      2.3 Data extraction

      Data extraction was performed by one of three reviewers and confirmed by two other reviewers. Study details (imaging use, study design, number of cases, age range, ABB-MRI protocol, acquisition and reading times, summary findings) were extracted from the included full-text articles and recorded on a database (Excel, Microsoft, Redmond WA, USA).

      3. Results and discussion

      Fig. 1 illustrates the flow of searching, selection, and inclusion/exclusion performed in this systematic literature review [
      • Moher D.
      • Liberati A.
      • Tetzlaff J.
      • Altman D.G.
      • Group P.
      • et al.
      Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the prisma statement.
      ]. The initial search yielded 538 documents, with 280 duplicated documents, which implied a final recovery of 258 documents. Each of these articles was independently reviewed by one of the three of the researchers, based on the reading of the title and abstract, in order to establish if its content did or did not describe the use of abbreviated protocols for the study of breast cancer, discarding 158 articles that did not include this aspect. Then, a more detailed review determined if the articles that were maintained in the previous step presented evaluations for the implementation of ABB-MRI, according to the criteria defined above. Three researchers carried out this review, and in case of disagreement, some articles were included for full-text review. Therefore, 59 documents were excluded, 17 of them because not reporting abbreviated protocols, 28 for being reviews or technical notes, either of general aspects of the use of magnetic resonance in the diagnosis of breast cancer or specifically on abbreviated protocols for breast cancer [
      • Chhor C.M.
      • Mercado C.L.
      Abbreviated MRI protocols: wave of the future for breast cancer screening.
      ,
      • Leithner D.
      • Moy L.
      • Morris E.A.
      • Marino M.A.
      • Helbich T.H.
      • Pinker K.
      Abbreviated MRI of the breast: does it provide value?.
      ,
      • Sheth D.
      • Abe H.
      Abbreviated MRI and accelerated MRI for screening and diagnosis of breast cancer.
      ,
      • Deike-Hofmann K.
      • Koenig F.
      • Paech D.
      • Dreher C.
      • Delorme S.
      • Schlemmer H.-P.
      • Bickelhaupt S.
      Abbreviated MRI protocols in breast cancer diagnostics.
      ,
      • Greenwood H.I.
      Abbreviated protocol breast MRI: the past, present, and future.
      ,
      • Ko E.S.
      • Morris E.A.
      Abbreviated magnetic resonance imaging for breast cancer screening: concept, early results, and considerations.
      ,
      • Kuhl C.K.
      Abbreviated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for breast cancer screening: rationale, concept, and transfer to clinical practice.
      ,
      • Milon A.
      • Vande Perre S.
      • Poujol J.
      • Trop I.
      • Kermarrec E.
      • Bekhouche A.
      • Thomassin-Naggara I.
      Abbreviated breast MRI combining FAST protocol and high temporal resolution (HTR) dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) sequence.
      ,
      • Mann R.M.
      • van Zelst J.C.M.
      • Vreemann S.
      • Mus R.D.M.
      Is ultrafast or abbreviated breast MRI ready for prime time?.
      ,
      • Mootz A.R.
      • Madhuranthakam A.J.
      • Dogan B.
      Changing paradigms in breast cancer screening: abbreviated breast MRI.
      ,
      • Gao Y.
      • Heller S.L.
      Abbreviated and ultrafast breast MRI in clinical practice.
      ,
      • Geach R.
      • Jones L.I.
      • Harding S.A.
      • Marshall A.
      • Taylor-Phillips S.
      • McKeown-Keegan S.
      • Dunn J.A.
      • Kuhl C.
      • Vinnicombe S.
      • O’Flynn E.
      • Wookey J.
      • Rose J.
      • Foy C.
      • Taylor V.
      • Valencia A.
      • Gifford J.
      • Gray R.
      • Jones T.W.
      • Litton K.
      • Lloyd S.
      • Kutt E.
      • Pocklington A.
      • Mahatma A.
      • Massey H.
      • Clark G.
      • McLachlan C.
      • Beckett G.
      • Alison C.
      • Barta M.
      • Betancourt C.
      • Bramwell J.
      • Bright N.
      • Burt H.
      • Cann L.
      • Ceney J.
      • Cornford E.
      • Dalgliesh D.
      • Doyle S.
      • Fearn S.
      • Godden D.
      • Goldthorpe Z.
      • Hobson L.
      • Hynam P.
      • Jackson E.
      • Jenkin M.
      • Kingsnorth B.
      • Klimczak K.
      • Moody A.
      • Perrin S.
      • Peters A.
      • Preston E.
      • Ratsey A.
      • Sidebottom R.
      • Steel J.
      • Stephenson L.
      • Taylor M.
      • Toth E.
      • Vincent F.
      • Watkin S.
      • Widdison S.
      • Williams J.
      • Wilmot K.
      • Elangovan P.
      • Halling-Brown M.
      • Ghiasvand H.
      • Hulme C.
      • Singamaneni S.
      • Friedrich Z.
      • Robson J.
      • Mankelow A.
      The potential utility of abbreviated breast MRI (FAST MRI) as a tool for breast cancer screening: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
      ,
      • Baxter G.C.
      • Selamoglu A.
      • Mackay J.W.
      • Bond S.
      • Gray E.
      • Gilbert F.J.
      A meta-analysis comparing the diagnostic performance of abbreviated mri (abb-mri) and a full diagnostic protocol (fdp-mri) in breast cancer.
      ], seven documents that corresponded to editorials, letters or erratum, two documents because the full text was not available in the English language, three more there was no full-text availability, and two documents that studied animal specimens. After the previous process, 41 articles were maintained for full-text review, which reported 53 breast ABB-MRI protocols.
      Fig. 1
      Fig. 1Flow diagram for study searching, selection and inclusion. A total of 41 articles that reported 53 ABB-MRI protocols were included.
      The main technical specifications of the studies included in this review are presented in Table 1. A total of 41 articles reviewed in full text, 18 were published between 2013 and 2017, and 23 were published between 2018 and 2020, demonstrating a growing interest in this subject area the last years. In 30 studies, patients were retrospectively identified from consecutive breast MRI studies performed for many clinical indications such as preoperative staging for patients with known malignant lesions, screening for high-risk patients, problem-solving, among others, which entails a potential selection bias. At the same time, in the other 10 articles, all data were prospectively acquired, the largest being the multicentre, cross-sectional EA1141 randomized trial [
      • Comstock C.E.
      • Gatsonis C.
      • Newstead G.M.
      • Snyder B.S.
      • Gareen I.F.
      • Bergin J.T.
      • Rahbar H.
      • Sung J.S.
      • Jacobs C.
      • Harvey J.A.
      • Nicholson M.H.
      • Ward R.C.
      • Holt J.
      • Prather A.
      • Miller K.D.
      • Schnall M.D.
      • Kuhl C.K.
      comparison of abbreviated breast MRI vs digital breast tomosynthesis for breast cancer detection among women with dense breasts undergoing screening.
      ], which was conducted at 47 institutions in the United States and one institution in Germany. This study compared the diagnostic performance of ABB-MRI and Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (DBT) for screening average-risk women with dense breasts. Study results showed a significantly higher rate of invasive breast cancer detection.
      Table 1Technical specifications of included ABB-MRI studies.
      StudyYearPurposeDesignField strengthPopulationSubjectsAge rangeMRI protocolAcquisition time (minutes)Reading time (minutes)
      Kuhl et al.
      • Kuhl C.K.
      • Schrading S.
      • Strobel K.
      • Schild H.H.
      • Hilgers R.-D.
      • Bieling H.B.
      Abbreviated breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): first postcontrast subtracted images and maximum-intensity projection-a novel approach to breast cancer screening with MRI.
      2014Screening: detectionProspective1.5TWomen at low to moderate risk44354.2

      2573
      T1W 1st post-contrast subtracted + MIP3.060.46(2068 seg)
      Grimm et al.
      • Grimm L.J.
      • Soo M.S.
      • Yoon S.
      • Kim C.
      • Ghate S.V.
      • Johnson K.S.
      Abbreviated screening protocol for breast MRI. a feasibility study.
      2015Screening: detectionRetrospective1.5T3TWomen at high risk of breast cancer4849.1

      T2W FS

      T1W pre and 1st post-contrast
      682.98
      T2W FS, Pre, 1st and 2nd post-contrast.8NR
      Mango et al.
      • Mango V.L.
      • Morris E.A.
      • Dershaw D.D.
      • Abramson A.
      • Fry C.
      • Moskowitz C.S.
      • Hughes M.
      • Kaplan J.
      • Jochelson M.S.
      • David Dershaw D.
      • Abramson A.
      • Fry C.
      • Moskowitz C.S.
      • Hughes M.
      • Kaplan J.
      • Jochelson M.S.
      • Dershaw D.D.
      • Abramson A.
      • Fry C.
      • Moskowitz C.S.
      • Hughes M.
      • Kaplan J.
      • Jochelson M.S.
      • David Dershaw D.
      • Abramson A.
      • Fry C.
      • Moskowitz C.S.
      • Hughes M.
      • Kaplan J.
      • Jochelson M.S.
      Abbreviated protocol for breast MRI: are multiple sequences needed for cancer detection?.
      2015Screening: detectionRetrospective1.5T3TWomen with biopsy proven unicentric breast carcinoma visualized on MRI10052

      2884
      T1W pre and 1st post-contrast

      subtraction and MIP
      10150.73
      Harvey et al.
      • Harvey S.C.
      • Di Carlo P.A.
      • Lee B.
      • Obadina E.
      • Sippo D.
      • Mullen L.
      An Abbreviated protocol for high-risk screening breast mri saves time and resources.
      2016Screening: detectionRetrospectiveNRWomen at high risk of breast cancer50553.2

      2481
      Axial T1W-FS pre and 1st post-contrast

      Subtraction + MIP
      1.911.55
      Heacock et al.
      • Heacock L.
      • Melsaether A.N.
      • Heller S.L.
      • Gao Y.
      • Pysarenko K.M.
      • Babb J.S.
      • Kim S.G.
      • Moy L.
      Evaluation of a known breast cancer using an abbreviated breast MRI protocol: correlation of imaging characteristics and pathology with lesion detection and conspicuity.
      2016Screening: detectionRetrospective3TWomen who had undergone breast MRI10755

      3383
      T1W post-contrast12
      T1W post-contrast with prior imaging4.5
      T2W, T1W post-contrast with prior imaging1212
      Moschetta et al.
      • Moschetta M.
      • Telegrafo M.
      • Rella L.
      • Stabile Ianora A.A.
      • Angelelli G.
      • Ianora A.A.S.
      • Angelelli G.
      • Stabile Ianora A.A.
      • Angelelli G.
      Abbreviated combined MR protocol: a new faster strategy for characterizing breast lesions.
      2016Screening: detectionRetrospective1.5TWomen with a family history of cancer and dense glandular structure47053.2±8.9

      2877
      STIR - T2W - THRIVE

      pre and 1st post-contrast

      THRIVE
      102±1.2
      Bickelhaupt et al.
      • Bickelhaupt S.
      • Tesdorff J.
      • Laun F.B.
      • Kuder T.A.
      • Lederer W.
      • Teiner S.
      • Maier-Hein K.
      • Daniel H.
      • Stieber A.
      • Delorme S.
      • Schlemmer H.-P.
      Independent value of image fusion in unenhanced breast MRI using diffusion-weighted and morphological T2-weighted images for lesion characterization in patients with recently detected BI-RADS 4/5 x-ray mammography findings.
      2017Screening clarificationRetrospective1.5TWomen with suspicious breast lesions detected in x-ray screening (BIRADS 4-5)5057.5

      5070
      T2W, DWI with background suppressionNR0.48±0.17
      Bickelhaupt et al.
      • Bickelhaupt S.
      • Paech D.
      • Laun F.B.
      • Steudle F.
      • Kuder T.A.
      • Mlynarska A.
      • Bach M.
      • Lederer W.
      • Teiner S.
      • Schneider S.
      • Ladd M.E.
      • Daniel H.
      • Stieber A.
      • Kopp-Schneider A.
      • Delorme S.
      • Schlemmer H.-P.H.-P.
      Maximum intensity breast diffusion MRI for BI-RADS 4 lesions detected on X-ray mammography.
      2017Screening clarificationRetrospective1.5TAsymptomatic women with suspicious breast lesions detected in x-ray screening (BIRADS 4)11557

      5069
      T2W, maximum intensity breast diffusion (MIBD)70.5
      Chen et al.
      • Chen S.-Q.
      • Huang M.
      • Shen Y.-Y.
      • Liu C.-L.
      • Xu C.-X.
      Application of abbreviated protocol of magnetic resonance imaging for breast cancer screening in dense breast tissue.
      2017Screening with dense breast tissueRetrospective3TWomen with dense breast tissue and negative previous results who had undergone routine breast MRI47849.3

      3071
      1st post-contrast

      subtracted + MIP
      30.7±0.3
      Chen et al.
      • Chen S.-Q.S.-Q.
      • Huang M.
      • Shen Y.-Y.
      • Liu C.-L.C.-L.
      • Xu C.-X.C.-X.
      Abbreviated MRI protocols for detecting breast cancer in women with dense breasts.
      2017Screening of dense breast tissueRetrospective3TWomen with dense breast tissue who had undergone routine breast MRI35648.2±4.7

      3075
      1st post-contrast subtracted + MIP30.61
      1st post-contrast

      1st subtraction + MIP, DWI
      3.20.9
      Jain et al.
      • Jain M.
      • Jain A.
      • Hyzy M.D.
      • Werth G.
      FAST MRI breast screening revisited.
      2017Screening: detectionRetrospective1.5T3TWomen with a personal or family history of cancer59144.25

      2174
      T1W pre and 1st post-contrast, 1st subtractionNRNR
      Kang et al.
      • Kang J.W.
      • Shin H.J.
      • Shin K.C.
      • Chae E.Y.
      • Choi W.J.
      • Cha J.H.
      • Kim H.H.
      Unenhanced magnetic resonance screening using fused diffusion-weighted imaging and maximum-intensity projection in patients with a personal history of breast cancer: role of fused DWI for postoperative screening.
      2017Screening: detectionRetrospective3TWomen with a personal history of breast cancer35846.34

      2674
      T1W-FS and Non FS, DWI

      1st and 5th post-contrast
      5NR
      Machida et al.
      • Machida Y.
      • Shimauchi A.
      • Kanemaki Y.
      • Igarashi T.
      • Harada M.
      • Fukuma E.
      Feasibility and potential limitations of abbreviated breast MRI: an observer study using an enriched cohort.
      2017Screening: detectionRetrospective3TWomen who had undergone breast MRI8854.5

      3178
      Coronal VIBE pre-contrast and coronal TWIST post-contrast4.29NR
      Oldrini et al.
      • Oldrini G.
      • Fedida B.
      • Poujol J.
      • Felblinger J.
      • Trop I.
      • Henrot P.
      • Darai E.
      • Thomassin-Naggara I.
      Abbreviated breast magnetic resonance protocol: value of high-resolution temporal dynamic sequence to improve lesion characterization.
      2017Screening: detection and characterizationRetrospective1.5TWomen who had undergone breast MRI7053

      2477
      1st T1W post-contrast + MIPNRNR
      1st T1W post-contrast, subtraction and T2W5.81.8
      TRICKS + MIP1.34NR
      1st T1W post-contrast, subtraction, T2W and TRICKS + MIP7.23.5
      Panigrahi et al.
      • Panigrahi B.B.B.B.
      • Mullen L.
      • Falomo E.
      • Panigrahi B.B.B.B.
      • Harvey S.
      An abbreviated protocol for high-risk screening breast magnetic resonance imaging: impact on performance metrics and BI-RADS assessment.
      2017Screening: detectionProspective1.5T3TWomen at high risk of breast cancer105253.1

      1986
      T1W-FS

      1st subtraction + MIP
      32.4±1.8
      Petrillo et al.
      • Petrillo A.
      • Fusco R.
      • Sansone M.
      • Cerbone M.
      • Filice S.
      • Porto A.
      • Rubulotta M.R.
      • D’Aiuto M.
      • Avino F.
      • Di Bonito M.
      • Botti G.
      • D’Aiuto M.
      • Avino F.
      • Di Bonito M.
      • Botti G.
      • D’Aiuto M.
      • Avino F.
      • Di Bonito M.
      • Botti G.
      Abbreviated breast dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging for lesion detection and characterization: the experience of an Italian oncologic center.
      2017Screening: detection and characterizationRetrospective1.5TWomen who had undergone breast MRI50846.4

      1475
      T1W 1st subtraction + MIP10150.73
      Romeo et al.
      • Romeo V.
      • Cuocolo R.
      • Liuzzi R.
      • Riccardi A.
      • Accurso A.
      • Acquaviva A.
      • Buonocore R.
      • Imbriaco M.
      Preliminary results of a simplified breast mri protocol to characterize breast lesions: comparison with a full diagnostic protocol and a review of the current literature.
      2017Screening: detection and characterizationRetrospective1.5TWomen at high risk of breast cancer with previous screening9850

      3073
      T1W FS pre-contrast, 1st, 2nd, 3th subtractions5.580.63
      Strahle et al.
      • Strahle D.A.
      • Pathak D.R.
      • Sierra A.
      • Saha S.
      • Strahle C.
      • Devisetty K.
      Systematic development of an abbreviated protocol for screening breast magnetic resonance imaging.
      2017ScreeningProspective1.5TAsymptomatic women with a negative mammogram67155.7

      4080
      T1W pre and 1st post-contrast, T2, 6th post-contrast7.5NR
      Choi et al.
      • Choi B.H.
      • Choi N.
      • Kim M.Y.
      • Yang J.-H.J.-H.
      • Yoo Y.B.
      • Jung H.K.
      Usefulness of abbreviated breast MRI screening for women with a history of breast cancer surgery.
      2018Recurrent breast cancer diagnosisProspective1.5T3TWomen with a history of breast cancer surgery72551

      2684
      Sagittal T2W-FS, sagittal T1W pre and 1st post-contrast, subtraction + MIP8.5NR
      Dogan et al.
      • Dogan B.E.
      • Scoggins M.E.
      • Son J.B.
      • Wei W.
      • Candelaria R.
      • Yang W.T.
      • Ma J.
      American college of radiology-compliant short protocol breast MRI for high-risk breast cancer screening: a prospective feasibility study.
      2018Screening (Quality image evaluation)Prospective3TPatients at increased breast cancer risk2357

      3872
      T2W FSE Triple-Echo Dixon T2W, 3D Dual-Echo FSPGR Dixon (DCE)9.42±0.8113.92±4.28
      Oldrini et al.
      • Oldrini G.
      • Derraz I.
      • Salleron J.
      • Marchal F.
      • Henrot P.
      Impact of an abbreviated protocol for breast mri in diagnostic accuracy.
      2018Screening: detection, timeRetrospective3TWomen who had undergone breast MRI9050.4

      2776
      Sagittal T1W pre and 1st post-contrast subtraction314.11
      Seppala et al.
      • Seppala N.
      • Fallah Rastegar R.
      • Richmond L.
      • Betel C.
      • Hack K.
      • Skarpathiotakis M.
      • Jong R.
      • Thornhill R.
      • Curpen B.
      Rapid MRI of the breast in evaluating lesions discovered on screening.
      2018Screening: detectionRetrospective1.5TWomen at high risk of breast cancer100NR

      3069
      T1W sagittal pre and first post-contrast subtraction + MIP4.582.5
      Zelst et al.
      • van Zelst J.C.
      • Vreemann S.
      • Witt H.-J.
      • Gubern-Merida A.
      • Dorrius M.D.
      • Duvivier K.
      • Lardenoije-Broker S.
      • Lobbes M.B.
      • Loo C.
      • Veldhuis W.
      • Veltman J.
      • Drieling D.
      • Karssemeijer N.
      • Mann R.M.
      Multireader study on the diagnostic accuracy of ultrafast breast magnetic resonance imaging for breast cancer screening.
      2018Screening: detectionProspective3TWomen at high risk20142.7

      2074
      TWIST1.421.09
      Yamada et al.
      • Yamada T.
      • Kanemaki Y.
      • Okamoto S.
      • Nakajima Y.
      Comparison of detectability of breast cancer by abbreviated breast MRI based on diffusion-weighted images and postcontrast MRI.
      2018Screening: detectionRetrospective1.5TWomen who had undergone breast MRI with breast cancer <2 cm87NRT2W FS,DWI, MIP-DWI90.220.47
      T2W FS, 2nd subtraction + MIPNR0.230.58
      Borthakur et al.
      • Borthakur A.
      • Weinstein S.P.
      • Schnall M.D.
      • Conant E.F.
      Comparison of study activity times for ”Full“ versus ”Fast MRI” for breast cancer screening.
      2019Comparing time to ScreeningRetrospective1.5TWomen who had undergone breast MRI as part of their scheduled clinical examinations73655.3±0.8Axial T2W STIR, Axial T1W pre and 1st post-contrast17.5±0.5NR
      Dialani et al.
      • Dialani V.
      • Tseng I.
      • Slanetz P.J.
      • Fein-Zachary V.
      • Phillips J.
      • Karimova E.
      • Brook A.
      • Mehta T.S.
      Potential role of abbreviated MRI for breast cancer screening in an academic medical center.
      2019Screening: detectionRetrospective1.5TWomen at high risk who had a negative mammogram in the previous year25952

      2678
      T2W MIP post-contrast
      T2W MIP post-contrast, T1W pre and 1st post-contrast3
      T2W MIP post-contrast, T1W Pre and 1st postcontrast, T2W82.4
      Girometti et al.
      • Girometti R.
      • Nitti A.
      • Lorenzon M.
      • Greco F.
      • Londero V.
      • Zuiani C.
      Comparison between an abbreviated and full MRI protocol for detecting additional disease when doing breast cancer staging.
      2019Detection of additional disease in breast cancer staging.Retrospective1.5TWomen with a histological diagnosis of breast cancer8756

      3079
      FLASH T pre-contrast, 1st post-contrast + MIP3NR
      Goto et al.
      • Goto M.
      • Sakai K.
      • Yokota H.
      • Kiba M.
      • Yoshida M.
      • Imai H.
      • Weiland E.
      • Yokota I.
      • Yamada K.
      Diagnostic performance of initial enhancement analysis using ultra-fast dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for breast lesions.
      2019Screening: detection and classificationProspective3TWomen with a history of chemotherapy20057

      3584
      TWIST-VIBE1.78NR
      Ha et al.
      • Ha T.
      • Jung Y.
      • Kim J.Y.
      • Park S.Y.
      • Kang D.K.
      • Kim T.H.
      Comparison of the diagnostic performance of abbreviated MRI and full diagnostic MRI using a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system in patients with a personal history of breast cancer: the effect of CAD-generated kinetic features on reader performance.
      2019Screening: detectionRetrospective1.5T3TWomen with a history of breast cancer231050±8T2W-FS T1W-FS 1st post-contrast1.5NR
      Jones et al.
      • Jones L.I.
      • Geach R.
      • Harding S.A.
      • Foy C.
      • Taylor V.
      • Marshall A.
      • Taylor-Phillips S.
      • Dunn J.A.
      Can mammogram readers swiftly and effectively learn to interpret first post-contrast acquisition subtracted (FAST) MRI, a type of abbreviated breast MRI?.: a single centre data-interpretation study.
      2019Screening performed by mammogram readersProspective3TWomen at high risk12540

      2861
      1st post-contrast-subtracted images+MIPNR0.561.28
      Lee-Felker et al.
      • Lee-Felker S.
      • Joines M.
      • Storer L.
      • Li B.
      • DeBruhl N.
      • Sayre J.
      • Hoyt A.
      Abbreviated breast MRI for estimating extent of disease in newly diagnosed breast cancer.
      2019Estimating extent of disease in diagnosed breast cancerRetrospective3TWomen with breast cancer newly diagnosed8156

      3292
      T1W FS pre and 1st post-contrast, subtraction + MIP3.51 to 4
      Milon et al.
      • Milon A.
      • Vande Perre S.
      • Poujol J.
      • Trop I.
      • Kermarrec E.
      • Bekhouche A.
      • Thomassin-Naggara I.
      Abbreviated breast MRI combining FAST protocol and high temporal resolution (HTR) dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) sequence.
      2019Screening: detection and characterizationRetrospective1.5TWomen who had undergone breast MRI12055

      2888
      T1W, T2W, T1W-FS 1st post-contrast7.8NR
      T1W, T2W, T1W-FS 1st post-contrast, HTR DCE8.35NR
      An et al.
      • An Y.Y.
      • Kim S.H.
      • Kang B.J.
      • Suh Y.J.
      • Jeon Y.W.
      Feasibility of abbreviated magnetic resonance imaging (AB-MRI) screening in women with a personal history (PH) of breast cancer.
      2020Screening: detectionRetrospective3TWomen with a personal history of cancer and post-surgical mammography and ultrasound testing76355

      2389
      T2W, T1W pre- and 1st post-contrast, subtraction and MIP.8.3NR
      Comstock et al.
      • Comstock C.E.
      • Gatsonis C.
      • Newstead G.M.
      • Snyder B.S.
      • Gareen I.F.
      • Bergin J.T.
      • Rahbar H.
      • Sung J.S.
      • Jacobs C.
      • Harvey J.A.
      • Nicholson M.H.
      • Ward R.C.
      • Holt J.
      • Prather A.
      • Miller K.D.
      • Schnall M.D.
      • Kuhl C.K.
      comparison of abbreviated breast MRI vs digital breast tomosynthesis for breast cancer detection among women with dense breasts undergoing screening.
      2020Screening of dense breast tissueProspective1.5T3TWomen with heterogeneously dense or extremely dense breasts144454

      4075
      T2W and T1W pre and post-contrast7.9NR
      Choudhery et al.
      • Choudhery S.
      • Chou S.-H.S.
      • Chang K.
      • Kalpathy-Cramer J.
      • Lehman C.D.
      Kinetic analysis of lesions identified on a rapid abridged multiphase (RAMP) breast MRI protocol.
      2020Comparing kinetic parameters of the RAMP MRI protocol Vs. DCERetrospective1.5T3TWomen with tissue diagnoses of suspicious MRI lesions16251.6±11.1Rapid Abridged Multiphase (RAMP)3NR
      Kwon et al.
      • Kwon M.-r.
      • Ko E.Y.
      • Han B.-K.
      • Ko E.S.
      • Choi J.S.
      • Park K.W.
      Diagnostic performance of abbreviated breast MRI for screening of women with previously treated breast cancer.
      2020Screening: detectionRetrospective1.5T3TWomen with previously treated cancer97350

      2684
      T2, 1st and 2nd post-contrast10113
      Marquina et al.
      • Marquina D.
      • Cruz C S.
      • García B A.
      • Suñén A I.
      • García M C.
      Value of an abbreviated protocol of breast magnetic resonance imaging for screening high-risk patients.
      2020Screening: detectionRetrospective1.5TWomen at high risk of breast cancer8246.84±11.23T1W pre and 1st post-contrast + MIPNRNR
      Mori et al.
      • Mori N.
      • Sheth D.
      • Abe H.
      Nonmass enhancement breast lesions: Diagnostic performance of kinetic assessment on ultrafast and standard dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in comparison with morphologic evaluation.
      2020Comparing kinetic parameters of the Ultrafast MRI protocol Vs. DCERetrospective3TPatients with histologic diagnosis of NMEs made by core biopsy or clinically confirmed benign NME.7752

      2381
      T1W pre-contrast, Ultrafast (8 series) post-contrast1.1NR
      Park et al.
      • Park K.W.
      • Han S.B.
      • Han B.-K.K.
      • Ko E.S.Y.S.
      • Choi J.S.
      • Rhee S.J.
      • Ko E.S.Y.S.
      MRI surveillance for women with a personal history of breast cancer: comparison between abbreviated and full diagnostic protocol.
      2020Recurrent breast cancer diagnosisRetrospective1.5T3TWomen with a personal history of breast cancer65650.4±9.1T2W, T1W pre, 1st and 2nd post-contrast, subtractions, Axial and Sagital MIP30.731.55
      Shiraishi et al.
      • Shiraishi M.
      • Igarashi T.
      • Terayama T.
      • Watanabe K.
      • Ashida H.
      • Ojiri H.
      Breast magnetic resonance imaging for estimation of the tumour extent in patients with pure ductal carcinoma in situ: comparison between full diagnostic and abbreviated protocols.
      2020Estimating extent of disease in diagnosed breast cancerRetrospective1.5TPatients with pathologically proven DCIS who underwent preoperative breast MRI16454

      1981
      T1W pre and 1st post-contrast + MIPNRNR
      Scoggins et al.
      • Scoggins M.E.
      • Arun B.K.
      • Candelaria R.P.
      • Dryden M.J.
      • Wei W.
      • Son J.B.
      • Ma J.
      • Dogan B.E.
      Should abbreviated breast MRI be compliant with American College of Radiology requirements for MRI accreditation?.
      2020Screening: detection and categoriztionProspective3TWomen at high risk of breast cancer7353.5

      2675
      Subtraction MIPsNR5.92
      Non-subtraction and subtraction DCENR26.44
      Non subtraction, subtraction DCE + MIP, T2W-FSE Dixon, 3D dual-echo Dixon9.6321.68
      Another aspect that stands out from the included studies is the variation in the field strength of the scanners. Thus, 15 studies acquired images using a scanner of 1.5T, 13 used scanners of 3T, and in 9 studies, both 1.5T and 3T scanners were used, respectively.

      3.1 Abbreviated protocols specification

      Varying versions of the abbreviated protocols have been reported in the literature. The selection of the sequences that make them up is apparently heuristic, with a general tendency using a non-contrast T1-weighted (T1W) or T2-weighted (T2W) acquisition plus at least one contrast-enhanced sequence [
      • Grimm L.J.
      • Soo M.S.
      • Yoon S.
      • Kim C.
      • Ghate S.V.
      • Johnson K.S.
      Abbreviated screening protocol for breast MRI. a feasibility study.
      ,
      • Moschetta M.
      • Telegrafo M.
      • Rella L.
      • Stabile Ianora A.A.
      • Angelelli G.
      • Ianora A.A.S.
      • Angelelli G.
      • Stabile Ianora A.A.
      • Angelelli G.
      Abbreviated combined MR protocol: a new faster strategy for characterizing breast lesions.
      ,
      • Jain M.
      • Jain A.
      • Hyzy M.D.
      • Werth G.
      FAST MRI breast screening revisited.
      ,
      • Oldrini G.
      • Fedida B.
      • Poujol J.
      • Felblinger J.
      • Trop I.
      • Henrot P.
      • Darai E.
      • Thomassin-Naggara I.
      Abbreviated breast magnetic resonance protocol: value of high-resolution temporal dynamic sequence to improve lesion characterization.
      ,
      • Romeo V.
      • Cuocolo R.
      • Liuzzi R.
      • Riccardi A.
      • Accurso A.
      • Acquaviva A.
      • Buonocore R.
      • Imbriaco M.
      Preliminary results of a simplified breast mri protocol to characterize breast lesions: comparison with a full diagnostic protocol and a review of the current literature.
      ,
      • Strahle D.A.
      • Pathak D.R.
      • Sierra A.
      • Saha S.
      • Strahle C.
      • Devisetty K.
      Systematic development of an abbreviated protocol for screening breast magnetic resonance imaging.
      ,
      • Oldrini G.
      • Derraz I.
      • Salleron J.
      • Marchal F.
      • Henrot P.
      Impact of an abbreviated protocol for breast mri in diagnostic accuracy.
      ,
      • Borthakur A.
      • Weinstein S.P.
      • Schnall M.D.
      • Conant E.F.
      Comparison of study activity times for ”Full“ versus ”Fast MRI” for breast cancer screening.
      ,
      • Ha T.
      • Jung Y.
      • Kim J.Y.
      • Park S.Y.
      • Kang D.K.
      • Kim T.H.
      Comparison of the diagnostic performance of abbreviated MRI and full diagnostic MRI using a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system in patients with a personal history of breast cancer: the effect of CAD-generated kinetic features on reader performance.
      ,
      • Milon A.
      • Vande Perre S.
      • Poujol J.
      • Trop I.
      • Kermarrec E.
      • Bekhouche A.
      • Thomassin-Naggara I.
      Abbreviated breast MRI combining FAST protocol and high temporal resolution (HTR) dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) sequence.
      ,
      • Comstock C.E.
      • Gatsonis C.
      • Newstead G.M.
      • Snyder B.S.
      • Gareen I.F.
      • Bergin J.T.
      • Rahbar H.
      • Sung J.S.
      • Jacobs C.
      • Harvey J.A.
      • Nicholson M.H.
      • Ward R.C.
      • Holt J.
      • Prather A.
      • Miller K.D.
      • Schnall M.D.
      • Kuhl C.K.
      comparison of abbreviated breast MRI vs digital breast tomosynthesis for breast cancer detection among women with dense breasts undergoing screening.
      ,
      • Kwon M.-r.
      • Ko E.Y.
      • Han B.-K.
      • Ko E.S.
      • Choi J.S.
      • Park K.W.
      Diagnostic performance of abbreviated breast MRI for screening of women with previously treated breast cancer.
      ]. This is to improve the specificity, including information that allows greater discrimination between benign and malignant lesions and make it possible to evaluate the tumor uptake. Other studies explicitly incorporate the use of maximum intensity projection (MIP) images of post-contrast examinations as part of the reading protocol [
      • Kuhl C.K.
      • Schrading S.
      • Strobel K.
      • Schild H.H.
      • Hilgers R.-D.
      • Bieling H.B.
      Abbreviated breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): first postcontrast subtracted images and maximum-intensity projection-a novel approach to breast cancer screening with MRI.
      ,
      • Mango V.L.
      • Morris E.A.
      • Dershaw D.D.
      • Abramson A.
      • Fry C.
      • Moskowitz C.S.
      • Hughes M.
      • Kaplan J.
      • Jochelson M.S.
      • David Dershaw D.
      • Abramson A.
      • Fry C.
      • Moskowitz C.S.
      • Hughes M.
      • Kaplan J.
      • Jochelson M.S.
      • Dershaw D.D.
      • Abramson A.
      • Fry C.
      • Moskowitz C.S.
      • Hughes M.
      • Kaplan J.
      • Jochelson M.S.
      • David Dershaw D.
      • Abramson A.
      • Fry C.
      • Moskowitz C.S.
      • Hughes M.
      • Kaplan J.
      • Jochelson M.S.
      Abbreviated protocol for breast MRI: are multiple sequences needed for cancer detection?.
      ,
      • Harvey S.C.
      • Di Carlo P.A.
      • Lee B.
      • Obadina E.
      • Sippo D.
      • Mullen L.
      An Abbreviated protocol for high-risk screening breast mri saves time and resources.
      ,
      • Heacock L.
      • Melsaether A.N.
      • Heller S.L.
      • Gao Y.
      • Pysarenko K.M.
      • Babb J.S.
      • Kim S.G.
      • Moy L.
      Evaluation of a known breast cancer using an abbreviated breast MRI protocol: correlation of imaging characteristics and pathology with lesion detection and conspicuity.
      ,
      • Chen S.-Q.
      • Huang M.
      • Shen Y.-Y.
      • Liu C.-L.
      • Xu C.-X.
      Application of abbreviated protocol of magnetic resonance imaging for breast cancer screening in dense breast tissue.
      ,
      • Chen S.-Q.S.-Q.
      • Huang M.
      • Shen Y.-Y.
      • Liu C.-L.C.-L.
      • Xu C.-X.C.-X.
      Abbreviated MRI protocols for detecting breast cancer in women with dense breasts.
      ,
      • Panigrahi B.B.B.B.
      • Mullen L.
      • Falomo E.
      • Panigrahi B.B.B.B.
      • Harvey S.
      An abbreviated protocol for high-risk screening breast magnetic resonance imaging: impact on performance metrics and BI-RADS assessment.
      ,
      • Petrillo A.
      • Fusco R.
      • Sansone M.
      • Cerbone M.
      • Filice S.
      • Porto A.
      • Rubulotta M.R.
      • D’Aiuto M.
      • Avino F.
      • Di Bonito M.
      • Botti G.
      • D’Aiuto M.
      • Avino F.
      • Di Bonito M.
      • Botti G.
      • D’Aiuto M.
      • Avino F.
      • Di Bonito M.
      • Botti G.
      Abbreviated breast dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging for lesion detection and characterization: the experience of an Italian oncologic center.
      ,
      • Choi B.H.
      • Choi N.
      • Kim M.Y.
      • Yang J.-H.J.-H.
      • Yoo Y.B.
      • Jung H.K.
      Usefulness of abbreviated breast MRI screening for women with a history of breast cancer surgery.
      ,
      • Seppala N.
      • Fallah Rastegar R.
      • Richmond L.
      • Betel C.
      • Hack K.
      • Skarpathiotakis M.
      • Jong R.
      • Thornhill R.
      • Curpen B.
      Rapid MRI of the breast in evaluating lesions discovered on screening.
      ,
      • Yamada T.
      • Kanemaki Y.
      • Okamoto S.
      • Nakajima Y.
      Comparison of detectability of breast cancer by abbreviated breast MRI based on diffusion-weighted images and postcontrast MRI.
      ,
      • Dialani V.
      • Tseng I.
      • Slanetz P.J.
      • Fein-Zachary V.
      • Phillips J.
      • Karimova E.
      • Brook A.
      • Mehta T.S.
      Potential role of abbreviated MRI for breast cancer screening in an academic medical center.
      ,
      • Jones L.I.
      • Geach R.
      • Harding S.A.
      • Foy C.
      • Taylor V.
      • Marshall A.
      • Taylor-Phillips S.
      • Dunn J.A.
      Can mammogram readers swiftly and effectively learn to interpret first post-contrast acquisition subtracted (FAST) MRI, a type of abbreviated breast MRI?.: a single centre data-interpretation study.
      ,
      • Lee-Felker S.
      • Joines M.
      • Storer L.
      • Li B.
      • DeBruhl N.
      • Sayre J.
      • Hoyt A.
      Abbreviated breast MRI for estimating extent of disease in newly diagnosed breast cancer.
      ,
      • An Y.Y.
      • Kim S.H.
      • Kang B.J.
      • Suh Y.J.
      • Jeon Y.W.
      Feasibility of abbreviated magnetic resonance imaging (AB-MRI) screening in women with a personal history (PH) of breast cancer.
      ,
      • Marquina D.
      • Cruz C S.
      • García B A.
      • Suñén A I.
      • García M C.
      Value of an abbreviated protocol of breast magnetic resonance imaging for screening high-risk patients.
      ,
      • Park K.W.
      • Han S.B.
      • Han B.-K.K.
      • Ko E.S.Y.S.
      • Choi J.S.
      • Rhee S.J.
      • Ko E.S.Y.S.
      MRI surveillance for women with a personal history of breast cancer: comparison between abbreviated and full diagnostic protocol.
      ,
      • Shiraishi M.
      • Igarashi T.
      • Terayama T.
      • Watanabe K.
      • Ashida H.
      • Ojiri H.
      Breast magnetic resonance imaging for estimation of the tumour extent in patients with pure ductal carcinoma in situ: comparison between full diagnostic and abbreviated protocols.
      ,
      • Scoggins M.E.
      • Arun B.K.
      • Candelaria R.P.
      • Dryden M.J.
      • Wei W.
      • Son J.B.
      • Ma J.
      • Dogan B.E.
      Should abbreviated breast MRI be compliant with American College of Radiology requirements for MRI accreditation?.
      ]. This derivated image highlights maximum enhancement areas such as tumor or lymph nodes, and allows for the assessment of the relationship among arteries, veins, and blood vessels.
      Some studies have focused on determining the effect by including the T2W sequence in an ABB-protocol [
      • Heacock L.
      • Melsaether A.N.
      • Heller S.L.
      • Gao Y.
      • Pysarenko K.M.
      • Babb J.S.
      • Kim S.G.
      • Moy L.
      Evaluation of a known breast cancer using an abbreviated breast MRI protocol: correlation of imaging characteristics and pathology with lesion detection and conspicuity.
      ,
      • Strahle D.A.
      • Pathak D.R.
      • Sierra A.
      • Saha S.
      • Strahle C.
      • Devisetty K.
      Systematic development of an abbreviated protocol for screening breast magnetic resonance imaging.
      ]. Strahle et al. [
      • Strahle D.A.
      • Pathak D.R.
      • Sierra A.
      • Saha S.
      • Strahle C.
      • Devisetty K.
      Systematic development of an abbreviated protocol for screening breast magnetic resonance imaging.
      ] developed an evaluation of the conspicuity of lesions in each sequence to determine those that could contribute better to the detection of suspicious lesions of malignancy. In this study, the authors request each radiologist to assign a conspicuous value for each observed lesion, that is, the intensity relative to the surrounding tissue, on the hypothesis that acquisitions that present greater conspicuity in the intensity of the signal improves the morphological characterization of the lesions, and consequently the ability to differentiate benign from malignant lesions. As a result, the proposed protocol contained the sequences T1W pre and post-contrast T2W post-contrast (taken at one and a half minutes), and T1 postcontrast at minute 6. This protocol has not been evaluated with respect to a complete protocol, and neither follow-up period was part of the study, which does not allow for calculation of sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive values. The assessment of conspicuity has also been included as a variable of analysis in the study of Heacock et al. [
      • Heacock L.
      • Melsaether A.N.
      • Heller S.L.
      • Gao Y.
      • Pysarenko K.M.
      • Babb J.S.
      • Kim S.G.
      • Moy L.
      Evaluation of a known breast cancer using an abbreviated breast MRI protocol: correlation of imaging characteristics and pathology with lesion detection and conspicuity.
      ]; the authors demonstrated that the T2W sequence does not affect the performance detection of lesions using an abbreviated protocol and is better than the T1W sequence. Thus, T2W sequence has been incorporated in several ABB-MRI protocols such as [
      • Grimm L.J.
      • Soo M.S.
      • Yoon S.
      • Kim C.
      • Ghate S.V.
      • Johnson K.S.
      Abbreviated screening protocol for breast MRI. a feasibility study.
      ,
      • Moschetta M.
      • Telegrafo M.
      • Rella L.
      • Stabile Ianora A.A.
      • Angelelli G.
      • Ianora A.A.S.
      • Angelelli G.
      • Stabile Ianora A.A.
      • Angelelli G.
      Abbreviated combined MR protocol: a new faster strategy for characterizing breast lesions.
      ,
      • Oldrini G.
      • Fedida B.
      • Poujol J.
      • Felblinger J.
      • Trop I.
      • Henrot P.
      • Darai E.
      • Thomassin-Naggara I.
      Abbreviated breast magnetic resonance protocol: value of high-resolution temporal dynamic sequence to improve lesion characterization.
      ,
      • Choi B.H.
      • Choi N.
      • Kim M.Y.
      • Yang J.-H.J.-H.
      • Yoo Y.B.
      • Jung H.K.
      Usefulness of abbreviated breast MRI screening for women with a history of breast cancer surgery.
      ,
      • Dogan B.E.
      • Scoggins M.E.
      • Son J.B.
      • Wei W.
      • Candelaria R.
      • Yang W.T.
      • Ma J.
      American college of radiology-compliant short protocol breast MRI for high-risk breast cancer screening: a prospective feasibility study.
      ,
      • Yamada T.
      • Kanemaki Y.
      • Okamoto S.
      • Nakajima Y.
      Comparison of detectability of breast cancer by abbreviated breast MRI based on diffusion-weighted images and postcontrast MRI.
      ,
      • Borthakur A.
      • Weinstein S.P.
      • Schnall M.D.
      • Conant E.F.
      Comparison of study activity times for ”Full“ versus ”Fast MRI” for breast cancer screening.
      ,
      • Dialani V.
      • Tseng I.
      • Slanetz P.J.
      • Fein-Zachary V.
      • Phillips J.
      • Karimova E.
      • Brook A.
      • Mehta T.S.
      Potential role of abbreviated MRI for breast cancer screening in an academic medical center.
      ,
      • Ha T.
      • Jung Y.
      • Kim J.Y.
      • Park S.Y.
      • Kang D.K.
      • Kim T.H.
      Comparison of the diagnostic performance of abbreviated MRI and full diagnostic MRI using a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system in patients with a personal history of breast cancer: the effect of CAD-generated kinetic features on reader performance.
      ,
      • Milon A.
      • Vande Perre S.
      • Poujol J.
      • Trop I.
      • Kermarrec E.
      • Bekhouche A.
      • Thomassin-Naggara I.
      Abbreviated breast MRI combining FAST protocol and high temporal resolution (HTR) dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) sequence.
      ,
      • An Y.Y.
      • Kim S.H.
      • Kang B.J.
      • Suh Y.J.
      • Jeon Y.W.
      Feasibility of abbreviated magnetic resonance imaging (AB-MRI) screening in women with a personal history (PH) of breast cancer.
      ,
      • Comstock C.E.
      • Gatsonis C.
      • Newstead G.M.
      • Snyder B.S.
      • Gareen I.F.
      • Bergin J.T.
      • Rahbar H.
      • Sung J.S.
      • Jacobs C.
      • Harvey J.A.
      • Nicholson M.H.
      • Ward R.C.
      • Holt J.
      • Prather A.
      • Miller K.D.
      • Schnall M.D.
      • Kuhl C.K.
      comparison of abbreviated breast MRI vs digital breast tomosynthesis for breast cancer detection among women with dense breasts undergoing screening.
      ,
      • Kwon M.-r.
      • Ko E.Y.
      • Han B.-K.
      • Ko E.S.
      • Choi J.S.
      • Park K.W.
      Diagnostic performance of abbreviated breast MRI for screening of women with previously treated breast cancer.
      ,
      • Park K.W.
      • Han S.B.
      • Han B.-K.K.
      • Ko E.S.Y.S.
      • Choi J.S.
      • Rhee S.J.
      • Ko E.S.Y.S.
      MRI surveillance for women with a personal history of breast cancer: comparison between abbreviated and full diagnostic protocol.
      ,
      • Scoggins M.E.
      • Arun B.K.
      • Candelaria R.P.
      • Dryden M.J.
      • Wei W.
      • Son J.B.
      • Ma J.
      • Dogan B.E.
      Should abbreviated breast MRI be compliant with American College of Radiology requirements for MRI accreditation?.
      ]. Dixon sequence has also been proposed in [
      • Dogan B.E.
      • Scoggins M.E.
      • Son J.B.
      • Wei W.
      • Candelaria R.
      • Yang W.T.
      • Ma J.
      American college of radiology-compliant short protocol breast MRI for high-risk breast cancer screening: a prospective feasibility study.
      ] and [
      • Scoggins M.E.
      • Arun B.K.
      • Candelaria R.P.
      • Dryden M.J.
      • Wei W.
      • Son J.B.
      • Ma J.
      • Dogan B.E.
      Should abbreviated breast MRI be compliant with American College of Radiology requirements for MRI accreditation?.
      ] to form up an ABB-MRI protocol for screening patients with high and increased risk. These sequences generate both water-only and fat-only series in a single acquisition, reducing the study acquisition time significantly while minimizes false-positive rates with no impact on cancer detection.
      Incorporating ultrafast DCE MRI sequences has also been proposed as an alternative for reducing the acquisition time on dynamic contrast enhanced studies. Ultrafast contrast-enhanced sequence refers to a new technique that allows capturing early contrast material wash-in at high temporal resolution, obtaining a series of images that describe the path of the contrast bolus within the first 2 minutes after contrast injection. Time-resolved angiography with interleaved stochastic trajectories (TWIST) by Siemens, Time-Resolved Imaging of Contrast Kinetics (TRICKS) and Differential Subsampling with Cartesian Ordering (DISCO) by GE, are the sequences used in the included studies [
      • Machida Y.
      • Shimauchi A.
      • Kanemaki Y.
      • Igarashi T.
      • Harada M.
      • Fukuma E.
      Feasibility and potential limitations of abbreviated breast MRI: an observer study using an enriched cohort.
      ,
      • Oldrini G.
      • Fedida B.
      • Poujol J.
      • Felblinger J.
      • Trop I.
      • Henrot P.
      • Darai E.
      • Thomassin-Naggara I.
      Abbreviated breast magnetic resonance protocol: value of high-resolution temporal dynamic sequence to improve lesion characterization.
      ,
      • van Zelst J.C.
      • Vreemann S.
      • Witt H.-J.
      • Gubern-Merida A.
      • Dorrius M.D.
      • Duvivier K.
      • Lardenoije-Broker S.
      • Lobbes M.B.
      • Loo C.
      • Veldhuis W.
      • Veltman J.
      • Drieling D.
      • Karssemeijer N.
      • Mann R.M.
      Multireader study on the diagnostic accuracy of ultrafast breast magnetic resonance imaging for breast cancer screening.
      ,
      • Goto M.
      • Sakai K.
      • Yokota H.
      • Kiba M.
      • Yoshida M.
      • Imai H.
      • Weiland E.
      • Yokota I.
      • Yamada K.
      Diagnostic performance of initial enhancement analysis using ultra-fast dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for breast lesions.
      ,
      • Milon A.
      • Vande Perre S.
      • Poujol J.
      • Trop I.
      • Kermarrec E.
      • Bekhouche A.
      • Thomassin-Naggara I.
      Abbreviated breast MRI combining FAST protocol and high temporal resolution (HTR) dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) sequence.
      ]. In particular, Zelst et al. [
      • van Zelst J.C.
      • Vreemann S.
      • Witt H.-J.
      • Gubern-Merida A.
      • Dorrius M.D.
      • Duvivier K.
      • Lardenoije-Broker S.
      • Lobbes M.B.
      • Loo C.
      • Veldhuis W.
      • Veltman J.
      • Drieling D.
      • Karssemeijer N.
      • Mann R.M.
      Multireader study on the diagnostic accuracy of ultrafast breast magnetic resonance imaging for breast cancer screening.
      ] proposed to use TWIST as a single-sequence in an ultrafast breast MRI protocol (UBMP) with an acquisition time of 1 minute and 42 seconds. Reported results indicated that this protocol is at least as accurate as a complete protocol. Additionally, Choudhery et al. [
      • Choudhery S.
      • Chou S.-H.S.
      • Chang K.
      • Kalpathy-Cramer J.
      • Lehman C.D.
      Kinetic analysis of lesions identified on a rapid abridged multiphase (RAMP) breast MRI protocol.
      ] found no significant difference between the rapid abridged multiphase (RAMP) ACR-accredited breast MRI protocol and one standard DCE-MRI for discriminating benign from malignant lesions, based on delayed-phase percentage washout, predominant curve type, or worst curve type. Similar results were found by Mori et al. [
      • Mori N.
      • Sheth D.
      • Abe H.
      Nonmass enhancement breast lesions: Diagnostic performance of kinetic assessment on ultrafast and standard dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in comparison with morphologic evaluation.
      ] but only for non-mass enhancement lesions. Unfortunately, specific MRI coil and sequence requirements are needed to achieve diagnostic spatial resolution at the high temporal resolution; it is because ultrafast imaging is not readily feasible with all available scanners.
      On the other hand, there is a growing interest in the development of contrast-agent free protocols by using the acquisition of diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and their respective Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps [
      • Bickelhaupt S.
      • Tesdorff J.
      • Laun F.B.
      • Kuder T.A.
      • Lederer W.
      • Teiner S.
      • Maier-Hein K.
      • Daniel H.
      • Stieber A.
      • Delorme S.
      • Schlemmer H.-P.
      Independent value of image fusion in unenhanced breast MRI using diffusion-weighted and morphological T2-weighted images for lesion characterization in patients with recently detected BI-RADS 4/5 x-ray mammography findings.
      ,
      • Bickelhaupt S.
      • Paech D.
      • Laun F.B.
      • Steudle F.
      • Kuder T.A.
      • Mlynarska A.
      • Bach M.
      • Lederer W.
      • Teiner S.
      • Schneider S.
      • Ladd M.E.
      • Daniel H.
      • Stieber A.
      • Kopp-Schneider A.
      • Delorme S.
      • Schlemmer H.-P.H.-P.
      Maximum intensity breast diffusion MRI for BI-RADS 4 lesions detected on X-ray mammography.
      ,
      • Chen S.-Q.S.-Q.
      • Huang M.
      • Shen Y.-Y.
      • Liu C.-L.C.-L.
      • Xu C.-X.C.-X.
      Abbreviated MRI protocols for detecting breast cancer in women with dense breasts.
      ,
      • Kang J.W.
      • Shin H.J.
      • Shin K.C.
      • Chae E.Y.
      • Choi W.J.
      • Cha J.H.
      • Kim H.H.
      Unenhanced magnetic resonance screening using fused diffusion-weighted imaging and maximum-intensity projection in patients with a personal history of breast cancer: role of fused DWI for postoperative screening.
      ,
      • Kul S.
      • Metin Y.
      • Kul M.
      • Metin N.
      • Eyuboglu I.
      • Ozdemir O.
      Assessment of breast mass morphology with diffusion-weighted MRI: beyond apparent diffusion coefficient.
      ,
      • Yamada T.
      • Kanemaki Y.
      • Okamoto S.
      • Nakajima Y.
      Comparison of detectability of breast cancer by abbreviated breast MRI based on diffusion-weighted images and postcontrast MRI.
      ], especially because gadolinium deposition in the brain has been described recently [
      • Kanda T.
      • Oba H.
      • Toyoda K.
      • Kitajima K.
      • Furui S.
      Brain gadolinium deposition after administration of gadolinium-based contrast agents.
      ]. Bickelhaupt et al. [
      • Bickelhaupt S.
      • Tesdorff J.
      • Laun F.B.
      • Kuder T.A.
      • Lederer W.
      • Teiner S.
      • Maier-Hein K.
      • Daniel H.
      • Stieber A.
      • Delorme S.
      • Schlemmer H.-P.
      Independent value of image fusion in unenhanced breast MRI using diffusion-weighted and morphological T2-weighted images for lesion characterization in patients with recently detected BI-RADS 4/5 x-ray mammography findings.
      ,
      • Bickelhaupt S.
      • Paech D.
      • Laun F.B.
      • Steudle F.
      • Kuder T.A.
      • Mlynarska A.
      • Bach M.
      • Lederer W.
      • Teiner S.
      • Schneider S.
      • Ladd M.E.
      • Daniel H.
      • Stieber A.
      • Kopp-Schneider A.
      • Delorme S.
      • Schlemmer H.-P.H.-P.
      Maximum intensity breast diffusion MRI for BI-RADS 4 lesions detected on X-ray mammography.
      ] proposed to use diffusion-weighted imaging with background suppression (DWIBS) for defining an ABB-MRI protocol and clarify mammogram based screening findings. The proposed protocol is composed of the DWIBS, TW2, and the fusion of both images. With this protocol, the false-positive rate of non-invasive measures decreased from 64% to 19%, whereas preserving the sensitivity. In a similar way, Kang et al. [
      • Kang J.W.
      • Shin H.J.
      • Shin K.C.
      • Chae E.Y.
      • Choi W.J.
      • Cha J.H.
      • Kim H.H.
      Unenhanced magnetic resonance screening using fused diffusion-weighted imaging and maximum-intensity projection in patients with a personal history of breast cancer: role of fused DWI for postoperative screening.
      ] proposed an abbreviated protocol consisted of fused DWI and unenhanced T1W images, and the DWI-MIP for screening patients with a personal history of breast cancer, which diagnostic performance was similar to a complete protocol. Chen et al. [
      • Chen S.-Q.S.-Q.
      • Huang M.
      • Shen Y.-Y.
      • Liu C.-L.C.-L.
      • Xu C.-X.C.-X.
      Abbreviated MRI protocols for detecting breast cancer in women with dense breasts.
      ] showed that adding the diffusion to a protocol based on the first post-contrast sequence and MIP, significantly improves the performance of the protocol. Likewise, in 2018, Kul et al. [
      • Kul S.
      • Metin Y.
      • Kul M.
      • Metin N.
      • Eyuboglu I.
      • Ozdemir O.
      Assessment of breast mass morphology with diffusion-weighted MRI: beyond apparent diffusion coefficient.
      ] conducted a study that seeks to establish the viability of using the acquisition of diffusion-weighted images and ADC map for describing the cellularity of masses detected in the breasts and to establish the contribution of this evaluation for its characterization. From the reported results, the diffusion images showed a high to moderate concordance during breast masses description respect to dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) study. In addition, the diagnostic accuracy achieved with the morphological evaluation was slightly lower in comparison with the DCE. Furthermore, this study showed that the combination of DWI and ADC acquisitions could achieve even better performance than the DCE. Chen et al. [
      • Chen S.-Q.S.-Q.
      • Huang M.
      • Shen Y.-Y.
      • Liu C.-L.C.-L.
      • Xu C.-X.C.-X.
      Abbreviated MRI protocols for detecting breast cancer in women with dense breasts.
      ] showed that adding the diffusion imaging to a protocol based on the first post-contrast sequence and MIP significantly improves the performance of the protocol. Moreover, Yamada et al. [
      • Yamada T.
      • Kanemaki Y.
      • Okamoto S.
      • Nakajima Y.
      Comparison of detectability of breast cancer by abbreviated breast MRI based on diffusion-weighted images and postcontrast MRI.
      ] reported that the detectability of the unenhanced abbreviated protocol based on DWI would be comparable to that abbreviated protocol based on postcontrast. According to the above, abbreviated unenhanced MRI based on DWI seems to have the potential for screening breast MRI.

      3.2 Study purpose and population

      Several included articles varied in both the study purpose and population, respectively. 36 articles studied the ABB-MRI protocols in breast cancer screening from both screening only and enriched cohorts with known cancers. In two others, the evaluation of recurrency was addressed [
      • Choi B.H.
      • Choi N.
      • Kim M.Y.
      • Yang J.-H.J.-H.
      • Yoo Y.B.
      • Jung H.K.
      Usefulness of abbreviated breast MRI screening for women with a history of breast cancer surgery.
      ,
      • Park K.W.
      • Han S.B.
      • Han B.-K.K.
      • Ko E.S.Y.S.
      • Choi J.S.
      • Rhee S.J.
      • Ko E.S.Y.S.
      MRI surveillance for women with a personal history of breast cancer: comparison between abbreviated and full diagnostic protocol.
      ]. Two of the articles evaluating the use of ABB-MRI for the extent of the disease assessing [
      • Lee-Felker S.
      • Joines M.
      • Storer L.
      • Li B.
      • DeBruhl N.
      • Sayre J.
      • Hoyt A.
      Abbreviated breast MRI for estimating extent of disease in newly diagnosed breast cancer.
      ,
      • Shiraishi M.
      • Igarashi T.
      • Terayama T.
      • Watanabe K.
      • Ashida H.
      • Ojiri H.
      Breast magnetic resonance imaging for estimation of the tumour extent in patients with pure ductal carcinoma in situ: comparison between full diagnostic and abbreviated protocols.
      ], and the other one for detecting additional lesions in confirmed breast cancer patients [
      • Girometti R.
      • Nitti A.
      • Lorenzon M.
      • Greco F.
      • Londero V.
      • Zuiani C.
      Comparison between an abbreviated and full MRI protocol for detecting additional disease when doing breast cancer staging.
      ].
      A total of 15,680 breast MRI studies were evaluated in the includes studies, 4934 of which were acquired prospectively. In four articles, MRI studies corresponded to subjects reported in another study; therefore, they were counted only once. The total number of subjects by study vary between 48 and 2310 in retrospective studies; and between 73 and 1444 in the prospective studies. Age ranges were between 14 and 92 years, with a mean of 51.33.
      From the set of 31 retrospective studies, 11 included women who had undergone breast MRI by currently accepted indications, such as preoperative breast staging, problem-solving, follow-up for previous non-surgical breast intervention, and probably benign findings detected on previous studies, among others [
      • Heacock L.
      • Melsaether A.N.
      • Heller S.L.
      • Gao Y.
      • Pysarenko K.M.
      • Babb J.S.
      • Kim S.G.
      • Moy L.
      Evaluation of a known breast cancer using an abbreviated breast MRI protocol: correlation of imaging characteristics and pathology with lesion detection and conspicuity.
      ,
      • Chen S.-Q.
      • Huang M.
      • Shen Y.-Y.
      • Liu C.-L.
      • Xu C.-X.
      Application of abbreviated protocol of magnetic resonance imaging for breast cancer screening in dense breast tissue.
      ,
      • Chen S.-Q.S.-Q.
      • Huang M.
      • Shen Y.-Y.
      • Liu C.-L.C.-L.
      • Xu C.-X.C.-X.
      Abbreviated MRI protocols for detecting breast cancer in women with dense breasts.
      ,
      • Machida Y.
      • Shimauchi A.
      • Kanemaki Y.
      • Igarashi T.
      • Harada M.
      • Fukuma E.
      Feasibility and potential limitations of abbreviated breast MRI: an observer study using an enriched cohort.
      ,
      • Oldrini G.
      • Fedida B.
      • Poujol J.
      • Felblinger J.
      • Trop I.
      • Henrot P.
      • Darai E.
      • Thomassin-Naggara I.
      Abbreviated breast magnetic resonance protocol: value of high-resolution temporal dynamic sequence to improve lesion characterization.
      ,
      • Petrillo A.
      • Fusco R.
      • Sansone M.
      • Cerbone M.
      • Filice S.
      • Porto A.
      • Rubulotta M.R.
      • D’Aiuto M.
      • Avino F.
      • Di Bonito M.
      • Botti G.
      • D’Aiuto M.
      • Avino F.
      • Di Bonito M.
      • Botti G.
      • D’Aiuto M.
      • Avino F.
      • Di Bonito M.
      • Botti G.
      Abbreviated breast dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging for lesion detection and characterization: the experience of an Italian oncologic center.
      ,
      • Oldrini G.
      • Derraz I.
      • Salleron J.
      • Marchal F.
      • Henrot P.
      Impact of an abbreviated protocol for breast mri in diagnostic accuracy.
      ,
      • Yamada T.
      • Kanemaki Y.
      • Okamoto S.
      • Nakajima Y.
      Comparison of detectability of breast cancer by abbreviated breast MRI based on diffusion-weighted images and postcontrast MRI.
      ,
      • Borthakur A.
      • Weinstein S.P.
      • Schnall M.D.
      • Conant E.F.
      Comparison of study activity times for ”Full“ versus ”Fast MRI” for breast cancer screening.
      ,
      • Milon A.
      • Vande Perre S.
      • Poujol J.
      • Trop I.
      • Kermarrec E.
      • Bekhouche A.
      • Thomassin-Naggara I.
      Abbreviated breast MRI combining FAST protocol and high temporal resolution (HTR) dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) sequence.
      ]; two of them were specifically oriented to the detection of lesions in women with heterogeneously or extremely dense breasts [
      • Chen S.-Q.
      • Huang M.
      • Shen Y.-Y.
      • Liu C.-L.
      • Xu C.-X.
      Application of abbreviated protocol of magnetic resonance imaging for breast cancer screening in dense breast tissue.
      ,
      • Chen S.-Q.S.-Q.
      • Huang M.
      • Shen Y.-Y.
      • Liu C.-L.C.-L.
      • Xu C.-X.C.-X.
      Abbreviated MRI protocols for detecting breast cancer in women with dense breasts.
      ], according to ACR categorization, and another one in to detect lesions in pathologically proven breast cancer studies [
      • Mango V.L.
      • Morris E.A.
      • Dershaw D.D.
      • Abramson A.
      • Fry C.
      • Moskowitz C.S.
      • Hughes M.
      • Kaplan J.
      • Jochelson M.S.
      • David Dershaw D.
      • Abramson A.
      • Fry C.
      • Moskowitz C.S.
      • Hughes M.
      • Kaplan J.
      • Jochelson M.S.
      • Dershaw D.D.
      • Abramson A.
      • Fry C.
      • Moskowitz C.S.
      • Hughes M.
      • Kaplan J.
      • Jochelson M.S.
      • David Dershaw D.
      • Abramson A.
      • Fry C.
      • Moskowitz C.S.
      • Hughes M.
      • Kaplan J.
      • Jochelson M.S.
      Abbreviated protocol for breast MRI: are multiple sequences needed for cancer detection?.
      ]. Six aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using abbreviated protocols to screening high risk women [
      • Grimm L.J.
      • Soo M.S.
      • Yoon S.
      • Kim C.
      • Ghate S.V.
      • Johnson K.S.
      Abbreviated screening protocol for breast MRI. a feasibility study.
      ,
      • Harvey S.C.
      • Di Carlo P.A.
      • Lee B.
      • Obadina E.
      • Sippo D.
      • Mullen L.
      An Abbreviated protocol for high-risk screening breast mri saves time and resources.
      ,
      • Marquina D.
      • Cruz C S.
      • García B A.
      • Suñén A I.
      • García M C.
      Value of an abbreviated protocol of breast magnetic resonance imaging for screening high-risk patients.
      ,
      • Romeo V.
      • Cuocolo R.
      • Liuzzi R.
      • Riccardi A.
      • Accurso A.
      • Acquaviva A.
      • Buonocore R.
      • Imbriaco M.
      Preliminary results of a simplified breast mri protocol to characterize breast lesions: comparison with a full diagnostic protocol and a review of the current literature.
      ,
      • Seppala N.
      • Fallah Rastegar R.
      • Richmond L.
      • Betel C.
      • Hack K.
      • Skarpathiotakis M.
      • Jong R.
      • Thornhill R.
      • Curpen B.
      Rapid MRI of the breast in evaluating lesions discovered on screening.
      ,
      • Dialani V.
      • Tseng I.
      • Slanetz P.J.
      • Fein-Zachary V.
      • Phillips J.
      • Karimova E.
      • Brook A.
      • Mehta T.S.
      Potential role of abbreviated MRI for breast cancer screening in an academic medical center.
      ]; and 7 others, to women with a personal or family history of breast cancer [
      • Kang J.W.
      • Shin H.J.
      • Shin K.C.
      • Chae E.Y.
      • Choi W.J.
      • Cha J.H.
      • Kim H.H.
      Unenhanced magnetic resonance screening using fused diffusion-weighted imaging and maximum-intensity projection in patients with a personal history of breast cancer: role of fused DWI for postoperative screening.
      ,
      • Moschetta M.
      • Telegrafo M.
      • Rella L.
      • Stabile Ianora A.A.
      • Angelelli G.
      • Ianora A.A.S.
      • Angelelli G.
      • Stabile Ianora A.A.
      • Angelelli G.
      Abbreviated combined MR protocol: a new faster strategy for characterizing breast lesions.
      ,
      • Ha T.
      • Jung Y.
      • Kim J.Y.
      • Park S.Y.
      • Kang D.K.
      • Kim T.H.
      Comparison of the diagnostic performance of abbreviated MRI and full diagnostic MRI using a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system in patients with a personal history of breast cancer: the effect of CAD-generated kinetic features on reader performance.
      ,
      • Jain M.
      • Jain A.
      • Hyzy M.D.
      • Werth G.
      FAST MRI breast screening revisited.
      ,
      • An Y.Y.
      • Kim S.H.
      • Kang B.J.
      • Suh Y.J.
      • Jeon Y.W.
      Feasibility of abbreviated magnetic resonance imaging (AB-MRI) screening in women with a personal history (PH) of breast cancer.
      ,
      • Kwon M.-r.
      • Ko E.Y.
      • Han B.-K.
      • Ko E.S.
      • Choi J.S.
      • Park K.W.
      Diagnostic performance of abbreviated breast MRI for screening of women with previously treated breast cancer.
      ,
      • Park K.W.
      • Han S.B.
      • Han B.-K.K.
      • Ko E.S.Y.S.
      • Choi J.S.
      • Rhee S.J.
      • Ko E.S.Y.S.
      MRI surveillance for women with a personal history of breast cancer: comparison between abbreviated and full diagnostic protocol.
      ]. Additionally, 3 studies established as inclusion criteria to present lesions previously identified by another imaging modality [
      • Bickelhaupt S.
      • Tesdorff J.
      • Laun F.B.
      • Kuder T.A.
      • Lederer W.
      • Teiner S.
      • Maier-Hein K.
      • Daniel H.
      • Stieber A.
      • Delorme S.
      • Schlemmer H.-P.
      Independent value of image fusion in unenhanced breast MRI using diffusion-weighted and morphological T2-weighted images for lesion characterization in patients with recently detected BI-RADS 4/5 x-ray mammography findings.
      ,
      • Bickelhaupt S.
      • Paech D.
      • Laun F.B.
      • Steudle F.
      • Kuder T.A.
      • Mlynarska A.
      • Bach M.
      • Lederer W.
      • Teiner S.
      • Schneider S.
      • Ladd M.E.
      • Daniel H.
      • Stieber A.
      • Kopp-Schneider A.
      • Delorme S.
      • Schlemmer H.-P.H.-P.
      Maximum intensity breast diffusion MRI for BI-RADS 4 lesions detected on X-ray mammography.
      ,
      • Choudhery S.
      • Chou S.-H.S.
      • Chang K.
      • Kalpathy-Cramer J.
      • Lehman C.D.
      Kinetic analysis of lesions identified on a rapid abridged multiphase (RAMP) breast MRI protocol.
      ]; and the other 4, focused on pathologically proven breast cancer studies [
      • Girometti R.
      • Nitti A.
      • Lorenzon M.
      • Greco F.
      • Londero V.
      • Zuiani C.
      Comparison between an abbreviated and full MRI protocol for detecting additional disease when doing breast cancer staging.
      ,
      • Lee-Felker S.
      • Joines M.
      • Storer L.
      • Li B.
      • DeBruhl N.
      • Sayre J.
      • Hoyt A.
      Abbreviated breast MRI for estimating extent of disease in newly diagnosed breast cancer.
      ,
      • Mori N.
      • Sheth D.
      • Abe H.
      Nonmass enhancement breast lesions: Diagnostic performance of kinetic assessment on ultrafast and standard dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in comparison with morphologic evaluation.
      ,
      • Shiraishi M.
      • Igarashi T.
      • Terayama T.
      • Watanabe K.
      • Ashida H.
      • Ojiri H.
      Breast magnetic resonance imaging for estimation of the tumour extent in patients with pure ductal carcinoma in situ: comparison between full diagnostic and abbreviated protocols.
      ].
      On the other hand, from the subset of 10 articles that studied subjects prospectively enrolled: 4 studied feasibility of ABB-AP for screening patients at high-risk of breast cancer [
      • Panigrahi B.B.B.B.
      • Mullen L.
      • Falomo E.
      • Panigrahi B.B.B.B.
      • Harvey S.
      An abbreviated protocol for high-risk screening breast magnetic resonance imaging: impact on performance metrics and BI-RADS assessment.
      ,
      • van Zelst J.C.
      • Vreemann S.
      • Witt H.-J.
      • Gubern-Merida A.
      • Dorrius M.D.
      • Duvivier K.
      • Lardenoije-Broker S.
      • Lobbes M.B.
      • Loo C.
      • Veldhuis W.
      • Veltman J.
      • Drieling D.
      • Karssemeijer N.
      • Mann R.M.
      Multireader study on the diagnostic accuracy of ultrafast breast magnetic resonance imaging for breast cancer screening.
      ,
      • Jones L.I.
      • Geach R.
      • Harding S.A.
      • Foy C.
      • Taylor V.
      • Marshall A.
      • Taylor-Phillips S.
      • Dunn J.A.
      Can mammogram readers swiftly and effectively learn to interpret first post-contrast acquisition subtracted (FAST) MRI, a type of abbreviated breast MRI?.: a single centre data-interpretation study.
      ,
      • Scoggins M.E.
      • Arun B.K.
      • Candelaria R.P.
      • Dryden M.J.
      • Wei W.
      • Son J.B.
      • Ma J.
      • Dogan B.E.
      Should abbreviated breast MRI be compliant with American College of Radiology requirements for MRI accreditation?.
      ]; two analyzed studies of women who carried a mildly or moderately increased risk, either because of dense breast tissue, mild or moderate family history, or personal history of breast cancer [
      • Kuhl C.K.
      • Schrading S.
      • Strobel K.
      • Schild H.H.
      • Hilgers R.-D.
      • Bieling H.B.
      Abbreviated breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): first postcontrast subtracted images and maximum-intensity projection-a novel approach to breast cancer screening with MRI.
      ,
      • Dogan B.E.
      • Scoggins M.E.
      • Son J.B.
      • Wei W.
      • Candelaria R.
      • Yang W.T.
      • Ma J.
      American college of radiology-compliant short protocol breast MRI for high-risk breast cancer screening: a prospective feasibility study.
      ]; and two more, women with a personal history of breast cancer [
      • Choi B.H.
      • Choi N.
      • Kim M.Y.
      • Yang J.-H.J.-H.
      • Yoo Y.B.
      • Jung H.K.
      Usefulness of abbreviated breast MRI screening for women with a history of breast cancer surgery.
      ,
      • Goto M.
      • Sakai K.
      • Yokota H.
      • Kiba M.
      • Yoshida M.
      • Imai H.
      • Weiland E.
      • Yokota I.
      • Yamada K.
      Diagnostic performance of initial enhancement analysis using ultra-fast dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for breast lesions.
      ]. Another one, studied asymptomatic women with a negative mammogram, which did not have a personal history of breast cancer or prior chest radiation therapy [
      • Strahle D.A.
      • Pathak D.R.
      • Sierra A.
      • Saha S.
      • Strahle C.
      • Devisetty K.
      Systematic development of an abbreviated protocol for screening breast magnetic resonance imaging.
      ]. Additionally, as was depicted above, Comstock et al. [
      • Comstock C.E.
      • Gatsonis C.
      • Newstead G.M.
      • Snyder B.S.
      • Gareen I.F.
      • Bergin J.T.
      • Rahbar H.
      • Sung J.S.
      • Jacobs C.
      • Harvey J.A.
      • Nicholson M.H.
      • Ward R.C.
      • Holt J.
      • Prather A.
      • Miller K.D.
      • Schnall M.D.
      • Kuhl C.K.
      comparison of abbreviated breast MRI vs digital breast tomosynthesis for breast cancer detection among women with dense breasts undergoing screening.
      ] studied clinically asymptomatic women with heterogeneously dense or extremely dense breasts.
      From the foregoing, although the abbreviated magnetic resonance protocols are presented to the scientific and healthcare community as an alternative for screening of breast cancer, few studies are oriented to assess their feasibility in the general population or in women with moderate risk. Additionally, given the advantages of magnetic resonance imaging, there does not seem to be any restriction to include women in a wide range of ages. Thus, the inclusion of young women with a moderate or high risk of developing the disease could be one of the main advantages of this type of studies.

      3.3 Acquisition and interpretation times

      From the studies that reported acquisition and interpretation times, we can conclude that there is evidence of a substantial reduction in an abbreviated protocol compared to the conventional complete MRI protocol. The average acquisition time of the includes studies was 5.88 minutes (1.1 minutes - 17.5 minutes), and the interpretation time of 3.38 minutes (30 seconds - 26.4 minutes). It should be noted that the times to review the medical history, the previous studies (mammograms or comparison ultrasounds), time to load images in the PACS system, or the time to report the findings, which consume an important part of the interpretation process, were not included. In this regard, Borthakur et al. [
      • Borthakur A.
      • Weinstein S.P.
      • Schnall M.D.
      • Conant E.F.
      Comparison of study activity times for ”Full“ versus ”Fast MRI” for breast cancer screening.
      ] analyzed the activity times from ABB-MRI and complete protocols for the examination, scan, and technologist activity, included both scan-related and non-scan-related activities. They found that the scan-related activities, such as creating post-processing images and injecting contrast, are performed during the long and idle times, which are more frequently available during the longer scan sequences of the complete protocol. That is to say, those times are absorbed by the longer imaging acquisition times during the complete protocol, offsetting some of the gains from performing the ABB-MRI protocol. Consequently, the implementation of an ABB-MRI increased only at 38% the patient flow rate, which was less than the 65% that was anticipated based on expected scan times.

      3.4 Diagnostic performance

      Despite the variability of the protocol designs, the included results consistently report non-significant differences in the diagnostic performance between Abbreviated and complete breast MRI protocols. Table 2, Table 3, Table 4, Table 5, Table 6, Table 7 summarize the main performance measures reported in the included studies: Sensitivity (Sens.), Specificity (Spec.), Predictive Positive Value (PPV), Predictive Negative Value (PNV), and Inter-observer agreement (Agree). Overall ABB-MRI protocols used biopsy or follow-up imaging results as standard of reference. Additionally, the varied inclusion/exclusion criteria for each study makes the enrolled subject cohorts differ greatly regarding cancer frequency and alter the diagnostic performance. Thus, articles were grouped according to their purpose and study population for readability. No larger differences were found in performance measures reported for each subset, although, as was expected, PPV was higher in studies with a larger prevalence of cancer.
      Table 2Performance of ABB-MRI protocols in screening settings to women who had undergone breast MRI for varied indications.
      StudyLesionsCancers/ SubjectsReferenceReadersExper. (years)Sens.Spec.PPVPNVAgree.
      Mango et al.
      • Mango V.L.
      • Morris E.A.
      • Dershaw D.D.
      • Abramson A.
      • Fry C.
      • Moskowitz C.S.
      • Hughes M.
      • Kaplan J.
      • Jochelson M.S.
      • David Dershaw D.
      • Abramson A.
      • Fry C.
      • Moskowitz C.S.
      • Hughes M.
      • Kaplan J.
      • Jochelson M.S.
      • Dershaw D.D.
      • Abramson A.
      • Fry C.
      • Moskowitz C.S.
      • Hughes M.
      • Kaplan J.
      • Jochelson M.S.
      • David Dershaw D.
      • Abramson A.
      • Fry C.
      • Moskowitz C.S.
      • Hughes M.
      • Kaplan J.
      • Jochelson M.S.
      Abbreviated protocol for breast MRI: are multiple sequences needed for cancer detection?.
      100100/100Biopsy45189692.9
      Heacock et al.
      • Heacock L.
      • Melsaether A.N.
      • Heller S.L.
      • Gao Y.
      • Pysarenko K.M.
      • Babb J.S.
      • Kim S.G.
      • Moy L.
      Evaluation of a known breast cancer using an abbreviated breast MRI protocol: correlation of imaging characteristics and pathology with lesion detection and conspicuity.
      107107/107Biopsy32696.3 100
      98.1 100
      98.1 100
      Chen et al.
      • Chen S.-Q.
      • Huang M.
      • Shen Y.-Y.
      • Liu C.-L.
      • Xu C.-X.
      Application of abbreviated protocol of magnetic resonance imaging for breast cancer screening in dense breast tissue.
      4116/478Biopsy/ follow-up21093.888.321.799.8
      Chen et al.
      • Chen S.-Q.S.-Q.
      • Huang M.
      • Shen Y.-Y.
      • Liu C.-L.C.-L.
      • Xu C.-X.C.-X.
      Abbreviated MRI protocols for detecting breast cancer in women with dense breasts.
      6714/356Biopsy/ follow-up3101592.986.52299.7
      1009545.2100
      Machida et al.
      • Machida Y.
      • Shimauchi A.
      • Kanemaki Y.
      • Igarashi T.
      • Harada M.
      • Fukuma E.
      Feasibility and potential limitations of abbreviated breast MRI: an observer study using an enriched cohort.
      5331/88Biopsy/ follow-up261390.387.5561.9597.70.56
      Oldrini et al.
      • Oldrini G.
      • Fedida B.
      • Poujol J.
      • Felblinger J.
      • Trop I.
      • Henrot P.
      • Darai E.
      • Thomassin-Naggara I.
      Abbreviated breast magnetic resonance protocol: value of high-resolution temporal dynamic sequence to improve lesion characterization.
      10658/70Biopsy25693.952560.2577.5
      93.160.47487.90.8
      89.760.473.2582.85
      93.177.0583.2590.20.87
      Petrillo et al.
      • Petrillo A.
      • Fusco R.
      • Sansone M.
      • Cerbone M.
      • Filice S.
      • Porto A.
      • Rubulotta M.R.
      • D’Aiuto M.
      • Avino F.
      • Di Bonito M.
      • Botti G.
      • D’Aiuto M.
      • Avino F.
      • Di Bonito M.
      • Botti G.
      • D’Aiuto M.
      • Avino F.
      • Di Bonito M.
      • Botti G.
      Abbreviated breast dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging for lesion detection and characterization: the experience of an Italian oncologic center.
      295207/508Biopsy/ follow-up22099.575.473.599.60.99
      Oldrini et al.
      • Oldrini G.
      • Derraz I.
      • Salleron J.
      • Marchal F.
      • Henrot P.
      Impact of an abbreviated protocol for breast mri in diagnostic accuracy.
      2626/90Biopsy/ follow-up20.5610093.3
      Yamada et al.
      • Yamada T.
      • Kanemaki Y.
      • Okamoto S.
      • Nakajima Y.
      Comparison of detectability of breast cancer by abbreviated breast MRI based on diffusion-weighted images and postcontrast MRI.
      8989/87Biopsy281589.9 95.597.6 94.10.45
      95.5 98.990.6 94.10.56
      Milon et al.
      • Milon A.
      • Vande Perre S.
      • Poujol J.
      • Trop I.
      • Kermarrec E.
      • Bekhouche A.
      • Thomassin-Naggara I.
      Abbreviated breast MRI combining FAST protocol and high temporal resolution (HTR) dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) sequence.
      179110/120Biopsy226922763720.8
      954570870.89
      Table 3Performance of ABB-MRI protocols in screening settings for women at high-risk of breast cancer.
      StudyLesionsCancers/ SubjectsReferenceReadersExper. (years)Sens.Spec.PPVPNVAgree.
      Grimm et al.
      • Grimm L.J.
      • Soo M.S.
      • Yoon S.
      • Kim C.
      • Ghate S.V.
      • Johnson K.S.
      Abbreviated screening protocol for breast MRI. a feasibility study.
      2412/48Biopsy/ follow-up37148686
      Harvey et al.
      • Harvey S.C.
      • Di Carlo P.A.
      • Lee B.
      • Obadina E.
      • Sippo D.
      • Mullen L.
      An Abbreviated protocol for high-risk screening breast mri saves time and resources.
      7/505Biopsy1228945
      Panigrahi et al.
      • Panigrahi B.B.B.B.
      • Mullen L.
      • Falomo E.
      • Panigrahi B.B.B.B.
      • Harvey S.
      An abbreviated protocol for high-risk screening breast magnetic resonance imaging: impact on performance metrics and BI-RADS assessment.
      4914/1052Biopsy1012281.897.230.40.94
      Romeo et al.
      • Romeo V.
      • Cuocolo R.
      • Liuzzi R.
      • Riccardi A.
      • Accurso A.
      • Acquaviva A.
      • Buonocore R.
      • Imbriaco M.
      Preliminary results of a simplified breast mri protocol to characterize breast lesions: comparison with a full diagnostic protocol and a review of the current literature.
      18064/98Biopsy/ follow-up281697959598
      Seppala et al.
      • Seppala N.
      • Fallah Rastegar R.
      • Richmond L.
      • Betel C.
      • Hack K.
      • Skarpathiotakis M.
      • Jong R.
      • Thornhill R.
      • Curpen B.
      Rapid MRI of the breast in evaluating lesions discovered on screening.
      5623/100Biopsy362269.677.90.54 0.53
      Zelst et al.
      • van Zelst J.C.
      • Vreemann S.
      • Witt H.-J.
      • Gubern-Merida A.
      • Dorrius M.D.
      • Duvivier K.
      • Lardenoije-Broker S.
      • Lobbes M.B.
      • Loo C.
      • Veldhuis W.
      • Veltman J.
      • Drieling D.
      • Karssemeijer N.
      • Mann R.M.
      Multireader study on the diagnostic accuracy of ultrafast breast magnetic resonance imaging for breast cancer screening.
      8531/100Biopsy/ follow-up76158482450.73
      Dialani et al.
      • Dialani V.
      • Tseng I.
      • Slanetz P.J.
      • Fein-Zachary V.
      • Phillips J.
      • Karimova E.
      • Brook A.
      • Mehta T.S.
      Potential role of abbreviated MRI for breast cancer screening in an academic medical center.
      7/2597/259Biopsy/ follow-up54287781
      9176
      9189
      Jones et al.
      • Jones L.I.
      • Geach R.
      • Harding S.A.
      • Foy C.
      • Taylor V.
      • Marshall A.
      • Taylor-Phillips S.
      • Dunn J.A.
      Can mammogram readers swiftly and effectively learn to interpret first post-contrast acquisition subtracted (FAST) MRI, a type of abbreviated breast MRI?.: a single centre data-interpretation study.
      5656/125Biopsy/ follow-up822888870.66 0.63
      Marquina et al.
      • Marquina D.
      • Cruz C S.
      • García B A.
      • Suñén A I.
      • García M C.
      Value of an abbreviated protocol of breast magnetic resonance imaging for screening high-risk patients.
      1211/82Biopsy/ follow-up1>1010091.4347.83100
      Scoggins et al.
      • Scoggins M.E.
      • Arun B.K.
      • Candelaria R.P.
      • Dryden M.J.
      • Wei W.
      • Son J.B.
      • Ma J.
      • Dogan B.E.
      Should abbreviated breast MRI be compliant with American College of Radiology requirements for MRI accreditation?.
      206/73Biopsy/ follow-up1612710073.651000.68
      10077.85.91000.51
      1009316.71000.37
      Table 4Performance of ABB-MRI protocols in screening settings for women at middle or moderate risk of breast cancer because of personal or familiar history.
      StudyLesionsCancers/ SubjectsReferenceReadersExper. (years)Sens.Spec.PPVPNVAgree.
      Kuhl et al.
      • Kuhl C.K.
      • Schrading S.
      • Strobel K.
      • Schild H.H.
      • Hilgers R.-D.
      • Bieling H.B.
      Abbreviated breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): first postcontrast subtracted images and maximum-intensity projection-a novel approach to breast cancer screening with MRI.
      3411/443Biopsy/ follow-up261810094,324,4100
      Moschetta et al.
      • Moschetta M.
      • Telegrafo M.
      • Rella L.
      • Stabile Ianora A.A.
      • Angelelli G.
      • Ianora A.A.S.
      • Angelelli G.
      • Stabile Ianora A.A.
      • Angelelli G.
      Abbreviated combined MR protocol: a new faster strategy for characterizing breast lesions.
      18575/470Biopsy2NR89916498
      Jain et al.
      • Jain M.
      • Jain A.
      • Hyzy M.D.
      • Werth G.
      FAST MRI breast screening revisited.
      4010/591Biopsy2NR10095.1728.2100
      Kang et al.
      • Kang J.W.
      • Shin H.J.
      • Shin K.C.
      • Chae E.Y.
      • Choi W.J.
      • Cha J.H.
      • Kim H.H.
      Unenhanced magnetic resonance screening using fused diffusion-weighted imaging and maximum-intensity projection in patients with a personal history of breast cancer: role of fused DWI for postoperative screening.
      3589/358Biopsy341092.694.430.399.70.69
      Choi et al.
      • Choi B.H.
      • Choi N.
      • Kim M.Y.
      • Yang J.-H.J.-H.
      • Yoo Y.B.
      • Jung H.K.
      Usefulness of abbreviated breast MRI screening for women with a history of breast cancer surgery.
      9712/725Biopsy271210089.261.5
      Goto et al.
      • Goto M.
      • Sakai K.
      • Yokota H.
      • Kiba M.
      • Yoshida M.
      • Imai H.
      • Weiland E.
      • Yokota I.
      • Yamada K.
      Diagnostic performance of initial enhancement analysis using ultra-fast dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for breast lesions.
      215106/200Biopsy261210056.8 40.90.74
      Ha et al.
      • Ha T.
      • Jung Y.
      • Kim J.Y.
      • Park S.Y.
      • Kang D.K.
      • Kim T.H.
      Comparison of the diagnostic performance of abbreviated MRI and full diagnostic MRI using a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system in patients with a personal history of breast cancer: the effect of CAD-generated kinetic features on reader performance.
      14951/2310Biopsy281594.1 92.297.6 98.634.5 47.599.92 99.89
      An et al.
      • An Y.Y.
      • Kim S.H.
      • Kang B.J.
      • Suh Y.J.
      • Jeon Y.W.
      Feasibility of abbreviated magnetic resonance imaging (AB-MRI) screening in women with a personal history (PH) of breast cancer.
      3221/763Biopsy/ follow-up391695.29857.199.9
      Kwon et al.
      • Kwon M.-r.
      • Ko E.Y.
      • Han B.-K.
      • Ko E.S.
      • Choi J.S.
      • Park K.W.
      Diagnostic performance of abbreviated breast MRI for screening of women with previously treated breast cancer.
      2910/973Biopsy5NR71.498.25099.6
      Table 5Performance of ABB-MRI protocols in screening clarification settings.
      StudyLesionsCancers/ SubjectsReferenceReadersExper. (years)Sens.Spec.PPVPNVAgree.
      Bickelhaupt et al.
      • Bickelhaupt S.
      • Tesdorff J.
      • Laun F.B.
      • Kuder T.A.
      • Lederer W.
      • Teiner S.
      • Maier-Hein K.
      • Daniel H.
      • Stieber A.
      • Delorme S.
      • Schlemmer H.-P.
      Independent value of image fusion in unenhanced breast MRI using diffusion-weighted and morphological T2-weighted images for lesion characterization in patients with recently detected BI-RADS 4/5 x-ray mammography findings.
      5022/50Biopsy22689.387.696.10.92
      Bickelhaupt et al.
      • Bickelhaupt S.
      • Paech D.
      • Laun F.B.
      • Steudle F.
      • Kuder T.A.
      • Mlynarska A.
      • Bach M.
      • Lederer W.
      • Teiner S.
      • Schneider S.
      • Ladd M.E.
      • Daniel H.
      • Stieber A.
      • Kopp-Schneider A.
      • Delorme S.
      • Schlemmer H.-P.H.-P.
      Maximum intensity breast diffusion MRI for BI-RADS 4 lesions detected on X-ray mammography.
      11542/115Biopsy2<1695.1289.190.82
      Table 6Performance of ABB-MRI protocols in screening settings for asymptomatic or health women.
      StudyLesionsCancers/ SubjectsReferenceReadersExper. (years)Sens.Spec.PPVPNVAgree.
      Strahle et al.
      • Strahle D.A.
      • Pathak D.R.
      • Sierra A.
      • Saha S.
      • Strahle C.
      • Devisetty K.
      Systematic development of an abbreviated protocol for screening breast magnetic resonance imaging.
      4356/671Biopsy461241.2
      Comstock et al.
      • Comstock C.E.
      • Gatsonis C.
      • Newstead G.M.
      • Snyder B.S.
      • Gareen I.F.
      • Bergin J.T.
      • Rahbar H.
      • Sung J.S.
      • Jacobs C.
      • Harvey J.A.
      • Nicholson M.H.
      • Ward R.C.
      • Holt J.
      • Prather A.
      • Miller K.D.
      • Schnall M.D.
      • Kuhl C.K.
      comparison of abbreviated breast MRI vs digital breast tomosynthesis for breast cancer detection among women with dense breasts undergoing screening.
      12622/1444Biopsy2NR95.786.719.6
      Table 7Performance of ABB-MRI protocols in recurrence, disease extension and staging settings.
      StudyLesionsCancers/ SubjectsReferenceReadersExper. (years)Sens.Spec.PPVPNVAgree.
      Girometti et al.
      • Girometti R.
      • Nitti A.
      • Lorenzon M.
      • Greco F.
      • Londero V.
      • Zuiani C.
      Comparison between an abbreviated and full MRI protocol for detecting additional disease when doing breast cancer staging.
      3636/87Biopsy41.52086 10076.2 84.6
      Lee-Felker et al.
      • Lee-Felker S.
      • Joines M.
      • Storer L.
      • Li B.
      • DeBruhl N.
      • Sayre J.
      • Hoyt A.
      Abbreviated breast MRI for estimating extent of disease in newly diagnosed breast cancer.
      11681/81Biopsy or follow-up8125999798950.83
      Park et al.
      • Park K.W.
      • Han S.B.
      • Han B.-K.K.
      • Ko E.S.Y.S.
      • Choi J.S.
      • Rhee S.J.
      • Ko E.S.Y.S.
      MRI surveillance for women with a personal history of breast cancer: comparison between abbreviated and full diagnostic protocol.
      2010/656Biopsy/ follow-up1NR70983599.5
      Although Girometti et al. [
      • Girometti R.
      • Nitti A.
      • Lorenzon M.
      • Greco F.
      • Londero V.
      • Zuiani C.
      Comparison between an abbreviated and full MRI protocol for detecting additional disease when doing breast cancer staging.
      ] reported that less experienced radiologists induced more false-positive findings than experienced ones, no large differences were reported between them for interpreting the ABB-MRI protocols. However, most studies were performed by experienced readers, which could bias the interobserver agreement that was reported between moderate and perfect in most of the cases when this measure was computed.
      Some articles were excluded from these tables because they non focused on diagnostic or categorization tasks [
      • Dogan B.E.
      • Scoggins M.E.
      • Son J.B.
      • Wei W.
      • Candelaria R.
      • Yang W.T.
      • Ma J.
      American college of radiology-compliant short protocol breast MRI for high-risk breast cancer screening: a prospective feasibility study.
      ,
      • Choudhery S.
      • Chou S.-H.S.
      • Chang K.
      • Kalpathy-Cramer J.
      • Lehman C.D.
      Kinetic analysis of lesions identified on a rapid abridged multiphase (RAMP) breast MRI protocol.
      ,
      • Mori N.
      • Sheth D.
      • Abe H.
      Nonmass enhancement breast lesions: Diagnostic performance of kinetic assessment on ultrafast and standard dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in comparison with morphologic evaluation.
      ,
      • Shiraishi M.
      • Igarashi T.
      • Terayama T.
      • Watanabe K.
      • Ashida H.
      • Ojiri H.
      Breast magnetic resonance imaging for estimation of the tumour extent in patients with pure ductal carcinoma in situ: comparison between full diagnostic and abbreviated protocols.
      ]. However, the reported results are mostly consistent with the feasibility of using abbreviated protocols for breast cancer. In [
      • Borthakur A.
      • Weinstein S.P.
      • Schnall M.D.
      • Conant E.F.
      Comparison of study activity times for ”Full“ versus ”Fast MRI” for breast cancer screening.
      ], activity times of an ABB-MRI were compared with the complete-protocol examination, but no diagnostic comparison was made. Dogan et al. [
      • Dogan B.E.
      • Scoggins M.E.
      • Son J.B.
      • Wei W.
      • Candelaria R.
      • Yang W.T.
      • Ma J.
      American college of radiology-compliant short protocol breast MRI for high-risk breast cancer screening: a prospective feasibility study.
      ] showed that an abbreviated protocol comprising a T2W and a 3D dual-echo fast spoiled gradient echo two-point Dixon sequences, not shown significantly image quality differences to that of a standard-of-care MRI protocol. Choudhery et al. [
      • Choudhery S.
      • Chou S.-H.S.
      • Chang K.
      • Kalpathy-Cramer J.
      • Lehman C.D.
      Kinetic analysis of lesions identified on a rapid abridged multiphase (RAMP) breast MRI protocol.
      ] demonstrates comparable kinetic characteristics for discriminating benign from malignant lesions between the ACR-accredited rapid abridged multiphase (RAMP) MRI protocol and a complete DCE MRI protocol. Likewise, the kinetic characteristics of ultrafast DCE-MRI allow differentiating benign from malignant non-mass enhancements as a standard DCE MRI protocol [
      • Mori N.
      • Sheth D.
      • Abe H.
      Nonmass enhancement breast lesions: Diagnostic performance of kinetic assessment on ultrafast and standard dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in comparison with morphologic evaluation.
      ].
      Finally, it is important to mention the results reported by Shiraishi et al. [
      • Shiraishi M.
      • Igarashi T.
      • Terayama T.
      • Watanabe K.
      • Ashida H.
      • Ojiri H.
      Breast magnetic resonance imaging for estimation of the tumour extent in patients with pure ductal carcinoma in situ: comparison between full diagnostic and abbreviated protocols.
      ], who evaluated the feasibility of using an ABB-MRI protocol for preoperative assessment of the tumor extent in patients with pure DCIS. The ABB-MRI protocol was comprised of a pre-contrast and 60 seg post-contrast T1W images with MIP.
      The performance was assessed by the rate of concordance between pathology and the extent estimated by image interpretation. In this case, the rate of concordance for the complete protocol was higher than for the ABB-MRI. However, variation in measurements between readers tended to be slightly lower for the ABB-MRI than the complete protocol.

      3.5 Cost-effectiveness

      The potential cost and time savings of the abbreviated protocols have been indicated in all of the studies included in this review; however, none of them evaluated the cost-effectiveness of abbreviated breast MRI relative to other imaging techniques. These analyzes are required to advance in the incorporation of the use of these protocols for screening low and intermediate risk patients in both current guidelines and clinical settings. For cost-effectiveness analyses of abbreviated MRI protocols, it is important to realize that time saving must consider both scan-related and non-scan-related activities, in order to compute the real value of an abbreviated MRI study.

      4. Conclusions

      Several studies in the literature have proposed the use of abbreviated MRI protocols for breast cancer. Most of them were assessed for screening purposes; however, the most recent publications have considered other diagnostic tasks, such as recurrence, staging, screening clarification, and disease extension. Overall, the abbreviated protocols have diagnostic performances comparable to that of the standard breast MRI protocol, except for the tumor extent estimation, when the concordance rate between the extent estimated by image interpretation and pathological results was higher for the complete protocol than ABB-MRI. Moreover, abbreviated MRI has also been shown to have superior cancer yield to that of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT).
      Abbreviated protocols were initially comprised of a subset of sequences of the standard complete protocol. However, at last times, the use of ultrafast o high temporal resolution (HTR) sequences has been introduced in both standalone and added to abbreviated MRI schemes. Ultrafast MRI sequences seem to be a really viable alternative since they allow a kinetic analysis of the contrast enhancement uptake of the lesions. On the other hand, unenhanced or free contrast MRI techniques such as diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) are also being investigated because gadolinium deposition in the brain recently described. These have shown a larger cancer detectability of mammography but slightly inferior to DCE based MRI protocols.
      In summary, shorter imaging times achieved with the abbreviated MRI protocols have the potential to increase efficiency in breast imaging practice, which would be expected to improve their cost-effectively even for the screening of increased-risk women such as women with dense breast tissue. However, further studies about the effect on clinical outcomes, physicians and patients acceptability, and cost-effectiveness compared with other technologies such as ABUS or CES are also required.

      Author contributions

      This work was developed with the substantial contribution of all the authors. G.D. and M.L.H. conceived and designed the study and searching strategy. S.O., K.F. and A.O carried out the searching and selection of articles and the information extraction, which was confirmed by G.D. and M.L.H. All authors have contributed to the preparation of the paper, the discussing of the searching results and the reviewing of the content of this article, and have approved the manuscript.

      Ethical statement

      Authors confirm that the manuscript has been read and approved by all named authors and that there are no other persons who satisfied authorship criteria. Authors further confirm that all have approved the order of authors listed in the manuscript. Additionally, authors declare that this manuscript is original, has not been published before, and is not currently being considered for publication elsewhere.

      Funding

      This work was funded by MinCiencias (Colombia), Instituto Tecnológico Metropolitano , and Ayudas Diagnósticas Sura . Project RC 740-2017 .

      Conflicts of interest

      The authors declare no conflict of interest.

      References

        • Wild C.P.
        • Widerpass E.
        • Stewart B.W.
        World Cancer Report 2014.
        World Health Organization, international agency for research on cancer, 2015 (Technical Report)
      1. Breast Fact Sheet.
        International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2018 (Technical Report)
        • Morrow M.
        • Waters J.
        • Morris E.
        MRI for breast cancer screening, diagnosis, and treatment.
        The Lancet. 2011; 378: 1804-1811https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61350-0
        • Gøtzsche P.C.
        • Nielsen M.
        Screening for breast cancer with mammography.
        in: Gøtzsche P.C. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK2011https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD001877.pub4
        • Ciatto S.
        • Visioli C.
        • Paci E.
        • Zappa M.
        Breast density as a determinant of interval cancer at mammographic screening.
        Br. J. Cancer. 2004; 90: 393-396https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjc.6601548
        • Berg W.A.
        • Blume J.D.
        • Cormack J.B.
        • Mendelson E.B.
        • Lehrer D.
        • B&ldquo;ohm-Vélez M.
        • Pisano E.D.
        • Jong R.A.
        • Evans W.P.
        • Morton M.J.
        • Mahoney M.C.
        • Larsen L.H.
        • Barr R.G.
        • Farria D.M.
        • Marques H.S.
        • Boparai K.
        Combined screening with ultrasound and mammography vs mammography alone in women at elevated risk of breast cancer.
        JAMA. 2008; 299: 2151-2163https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.299.18.2151
        • Greenwood H.I.
        • Dodelzon K.
        • Katzen J.T.
        Impact of advancing technology on diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer.
        Surg. Clin. North Am. 2018; 98: 703-724https://doi.org/10.1016/j.suc.2018.03.006
        • Demartini W.
        • Lehman C.
        A review of current evidence-based clinical applications for breast magnetic resonance imaging.
        Top. Magn. Reson. Imaging. 2008; 19: 143-150https://doi.org/10.1097/RMR.0b013e31818a40a5
        • Taneja C.
        • Edelsberg J.
        • Weycker D.
        • Guo A.
        • Oster G.
        • Weinreb J.
        Cost effectiveness of breast cancer screening with contrast-enhanced MRI in high-risk women.
        J. Am. Coll. Radiol. 2009; 6: 171-179https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacr.2008.10.003
        • Saadatmand S.
        • Tilanus-Linthorst M.M.A.
        • Rutgers E.J.T.
        • Hoogerbrugge N.
        • Oosterwijk J.C.
        • Tollenaar R.A.E.M.
        • Hooning M.
        • Loo C.E.
        • Obdeijn I.-M.
        • Heijnsdijk E.A.M.
        • de Koning H.J.
        Cost-effectiveness of screening women with familial risk for breast cancer with magnetic resonance imaging.
        JNCI: J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 2013; 105: 1314-1321https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djt203
        • Saslow D.
        • Boetes C.
        • Burke W.
        • Harms S.
        • Leach M.O.
        • Lehman C.D.
        • Morris E.
        • Pisano E.
        • Schnall M.
        • Sener S.
        • Smith R.A.
        • Warner E.
        • Yaffe M.
        • Andrews K.S.
        • Russell C.A.
        • American Cancer Society Breast Cancer Advisory Group
        American cancer society guidelines for breast screening with MRI as an adjunct to mammography.
        CA. Cancer J. Clin. 2007; 57: 75-89
        • Lee C.H.
        • Dershaw D.D.
        • Kopans D.
        • Evans P.
        • Monsees B.
        • Monticciolo D.
        • Brenner R.J.
        • Bassett L.
        • Berg W.
        • Feig S.
        • Hendrick E.
        • Mendelson E.
        • D’Orsi C.
        • Sickles E.
        • Burhenne L.W.
        Breast cancer screening with imaging: recommendations from the society of breast imaging and the ACR on the use of mammography, breast MRI, breast ultrasound, and other technologies for the detection of clinically occult breast cancer.
        J. Am. Coll. Radiol. 2010; 7: 18-27https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacr.2009.09.022
        • Mann R.M.
        • Balleyguier C.
        • Baltzer P.A.
        • Bick U.
        • Colin C.
        • Cornford E.
        • Evans A.
        • Fallenberg E.
        • Forrai G.
        • Fuchsj&rdquo;ager M.H.
        • et al.
        Breast mri: eusobi recommendations for women's information.
        Eur. Radiol. 2015; 25: 3669-3678https://doi.org/10.1007/s00330-015-3807-z
        • Sardanelli F.
        • Boetes C.
        • Borisch B.
        • Decker T.
        • Federico M.
        • Gilbert F.J.
        • Helbich T.
        • Heywang-K&ldquo;obrunner S.H.
        • Kaiser W.A.
        • Kerin M.J.
        • et al.
        Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast: recommendations from the eusoma working group.
        Eur. J. Cancer. 2010; 46: 1296-1316https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2010.02.015
        • Smith R.A.
        • Andrews K.S.
        • Brooks D.
        • Fedewa S.A.
        • Manassaram-Baptiste D.
        • Saslow D.
        • Wender R.C.
        Cancer screening in the united states, 2019: a review of current american cancer society guidelines and current issues in cancer screening.
        CA. Cancer J. Clin. 2019; 69: 184-210https://doi.org/10.3322/caac.21557
        • AB D.L.
        • et al.
        Screening in patients with increased risk of breast cancer (part 1): pros and cons of mri screening.
        Radiologia. 2020; 62: 252-265https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rxeng.2020.01.009
        • Kaiser C.G.
        • Dietzel M.
        • Vag T.
        • Froelich M.F.
        Cost-effectiveness of MR-mammography vs. conventional mammography in screening patients at intermediate risk of breast cancer - A model-based economic evaluation.
        Eur. J. Radiol. 2020; : 109355https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2020.109355
        • Froelich M.F.
        • Kaiser C.G.
        Cost-effectiveness of MR-mammography as a solitary imaging technique in women with dense breasts: an economic evaluation of the prospective TK-Study.
        Eur. Radiol. 2020; https://doi.org/10.1007/s00330-020-07129-5
        • Kuhl C.K.
        • Schrading S.
        • Strobel K.
        • Schild H.H.
        • Hilgers R.-D.
        • Bieling H.B.
        Abbreviated breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): first postcontrast subtracted images and maximum-intensity projection-a novel approach to breast cancer screening with MRI.
        J. Clin. Oncol. 2014; 32: 2304-2310https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2013.52.5386
        • Chhor C.M.
        • Mercado C.L.
        Abbreviated MRI protocols: wave of the future for breast cancer screening.
        Am. J. Roentgenol. 2017; 208: 284-289https://doi.org/10.2214/AJR.16.17205
        • Leithner D.
        • Moy L.
        • Morris E.A.
        • Marino M.A.
        • Helbich T.H.
        • Pinker K.
        Abbreviated MRI of the breast: does it provide value?.
        J. Magn. Reson. Imaging. 2018; https://doi.org/10.1002/jmri.26291
        • Sheth D.
        • Abe H.
        Abbreviated MRI and accelerated MRI for screening and diagnosis of breast cancer.
        Top. Magn. Reson. Imaging. 2017; 26: 183-189https://doi.org/10.1097/RMR.0000000000000140
        • Deike-Hofmann K.
        • Koenig F.
        • Paech D.
        • Dreher C.
        • Delorme S.
        • Schlemmer H.-P.
        • Bickelhaupt S.
        Abbreviated MRI protocols in breast cancer diagnostics.
        J. Magn. Reson. Imaging. 2019; 49: 647-658https://doi.org/10.1002/jmri.26525
        • Greenwood H.I.
        Abbreviated protocol breast MRI: the past, present, and future.
        Clin. Imaging. 2019; 53: 169-173https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinimag.2018.10.017
        • Ko E.S.
        • Morris E.A.
        Abbreviated magnetic resonance imaging for breast cancer screening: concept, early results, and considerations.
        Korean J. Radiol. 2019; 20: 533-541https://doi.org/10.3348/kjr.2018.0722
        • Kuhl C.K.
        Abbreviated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for breast cancer screening: rationale, concept, and transfer to clinical practice.
        Annu. Rev. Med. 2019; 70: 501-519https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-med-121417-100403
        • Milon A.
        • Vande Perre S.
        • Poujol J.
        • Trop I.
        • Kermarrec E.
        • Bekhouche A.
        • Thomassin-Naggara I.
        Abbreviated breast MRI combining FAST protocol and high temporal resolution (HTR) dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) sequence.
        Eur. J. Radiol. 2019; 117: 199-208https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2019.06.022
        • Mann R.M.
        • van Zelst J.C.M.
        • Vreemann S.
        • Mus R.D.M.
        Is ultrafast or abbreviated breast MRI ready for prime time?.
        Curr. Breast Cancer Rep. 2019; 11: 9-16https://doi.org/10.1007/s12609-019-0300-8
        • Mootz A.R.
        • Madhuranthakam A.J.
        • Dogan B.
        Changing paradigms in breast cancer screening: abbreviated breast MRI.
        Eur. J. Breast Health. 2019; 15: 1-6https://doi.org/10.5152/ejbh.2018.4402
        • Gao Y.
        • Heller S.L.
        Abbreviated and ultrafast breast MRI in clinical practice.
        Radiographics. 2020; 40: 1507-1527https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.2020200006
        • Baxter G.C.
        • Selamoglu A.
        • Mackay J.W.
        • Bond S.
        • Gray E.
        • Gilbert F.J.
        A meta-analysis comparing the diagnostic performance of abbreviated mri (abb-mri) and a full diagnostic protocol (fdp-mri) in breast cancer.
        Clin. Radiol. 2020; 266: 4-5https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crad.2020.08.036
        • Geach R.
        • Jones L.I.
        • Harding S.A.
        • Marshall A.
        • Taylor-Phillips S.
        • McKeown-Keegan S.
        • Dunn J.A.
        • Kuhl C.
        • Vinnicombe S.
        • O’Flynn E.
        • Wookey J.
        • Rose J.
        • Foy C.
        • Taylor V.
        • Valencia A.
        • Gifford J.
        • Gray R.
        • Jones T.W.
        • Litton K.
        • Lloyd S.
        • Kutt E.
        • Pocklington A.
        • Mahatma A.
        • Massey H.
        • Clark G.
        • McLachlan C.
        • Beckett G.
        • Alison C.
        • Barta M.
        • Betancourt C.
        • Bramwell J.
        • Bright N.
        • Burt H.
        • Cann L.
        • Ceney J.
        • Cornford E.
        • Dalgliesh D.
        • Doyle S.
        • Fearn S.
        • Godden D.
        • Goldthorpe Z.
        • Hobson L.
        • Hynam P.
        • Jackson E.
        • Jenkin M.
        • Kingsnorth B.
        • Klimczak K.
        • Moody A.
        • Perrin S.
        • Peters A.
        • Preston E.
        • Ratsey A.
        • Sidebottom R.
        • Steel J.
        • Stephenson L.
        • Taylor M.
        • Toth E.
        • Vincent F.
        • Watkin S.
        • Widdison S.
        • Williams J.
        • Wilmot K.
        • Elangovan P.
        • Halling-Brown M.
        • Ghiasvand H.
        • Hulme C.
        • Singamaneni S.
        • Friedrich Z.
        • Robson J.
        • Mankelow A.
        The potential utility of abbreviated breast MRI (FAST MRI) as a tool for breast cancer screening: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Clin. Radiol. 2020; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crad.2020.08.032
        • Moher D.
        • Liberati A.
        • Tetzlaff J.
        • Altman D.G.
        • Group P.
        • et al.
        Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the prisma statement.
        PLoS med. 2009; 6: e1000097
        • Comstock C.E.
        • Gatsonis C.
        • Newstead G.M.
        • Snyder B.S.
        • Gareen I.F.
        • Bergin J.T.
        • Rahbar H.
        • Sung J.S.
        • Jacobs C.
        • Harvey J.A.
        • Nicholson M.H.
        • Ward R.C.
        • Holt J.
        • Prather A.
        • Miller K.D.
        • Schnall M.D.
        • Kuhl C.K.
        comparison of abbreviated breast MRI vs digital breast tomosynthesis for breast cancer detection among women with dense breasts undergoing screening.
        JAMA. 2020; 323: 746https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.0572
        • Grimm L.J.
        • Soo M.S.
        • Yoon S.
        • Kim C.
        • Ghate S.V.
        • Johnson K.S.
        Abbreviated screening protocol for breast MRI. a feasibility study.
        Acad. Radiol. 2015; 22: 1157-1162https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acra.2015.06.004